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  • ID:4-6791995 广东省中山市中山纪念中学2019-2020学年高三年级上学期校内第一次质量检测试题--英语(含答案)

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    中山纪念中学2019-2020学年高三校内第一次质量检测考试题 英 语 第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) 第一节(共15小题;毎小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A The Costa Book Awards consistently pick winners that are both of the moment and subsequently endure. It's our pleasure to confirm this year's Category Winners. First Novel Award Winner Book: Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine Author: Gail Honeyman Eleanor is 31 years old; work finishes on a Friday and begins again on a Monday. Between, her only company will be two bottles of vodka and her own solitary, unique wit(机智). It is contentment, of a kind, but an unexpected shared experience suddenly opens the door to possibility. Challenging reader expectations with a living, breathing character, Gail Honeyman's debut is a funny and moving diamond. Biography Award Winner Book: In the Days of Rain Author: Rebecca Stott The Exclusive Brethren were a closed community who believed the world is ruled by Satan. Into this is born Rebecca. Her father had been an influential Brethren Minister. As her father lay dying, he begged her to help him write the memoir(回忆录). He wanted to tell the story of their family who for generations had all been members of a fundamentalist Christian sect. Poetry Award Winner Book: Inside the Wave Author: Helen Dunmore To be alive is to be inside the wave, always travelling until it breaks and is gone. These poems are concerned with the borderline between the living and the dead — the underworld and the human living world — and the acutely intense being of both. Children's Award Winner Book: The Explorer Author: Katherine Rundell, Hannah Horn Four children survive their aircraft plunging into the Amazon jungle, but for Fred and his friends it's only the beginning of a cruel battle for survival. Brimming with adventure and a real command of character and incident, Rundell has few peers in superb children's fiction. 1.What kind of life does Eleanor lead? A. Boring and lonely. B. Funny and touching. C. Exciting and complex. D.Ordinary and happy. 2.Why did Rebecca Stott write In the Days of Rain? A.To introduce beliefs of the Exclusive Brethren. B.To help her father fulfill his last wish. C.To share the life of fundamentalist Christians. D.To pass on her family traditions. 3.For a young adventurous soul, which book seems more appealing? A.Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine. B.In the Days of Rain. C.Inside the Wave. D.The Explorer B My 11-year-old daughter has been awarded an academic scholarship to a private school. It’s only a small discount, but the scholarship means she'll skip the waiting list — provided my husband and I can cover $20,000 a year. Should we pay the private school fees, or choose free education instead? I always assumed my children would go to a private school, like I did. Not because my family is wealthy, but because I believe that the best education is private. It took years for me to make peace with the fact that my two children attended our local public primary school. They'll go to a private high school, I told myself. Yet here we are. My eldest is now in her last year of primary school, and my husband and I will struggle to afford private school. If so, I could increase my work hours. My law degree was supposed to be my ticket to a good job and a solid income, but that's not quite how it turned out. During many sleepless nights, I felt troubled by the decision. Although I want the best for my daughter, I have my own dreams too. I can't sacrifice everything for my precious girl. I explain that I want to be a positive role model for my daughter, and an unhappy parent is a terrible strain on a family. I point out that not even the privilege of private school will protect my children from disappointment or struggle. And finally, it's decided. My daughter is going to the public school behind our home. She couldn't be more pleased. It's taken me a little longer, but now I'm content. More than my fancy private school education, it's my family that shaped me. With high school now 25 years in the past, I can no longer remember the mathematical problems and Shakespearean quotes I once knew so perfectly. The lessons from my childhood home, however, have proved impossible to forget. 4. From the passage we know that __________________. A. the scholarship her daughter won could cover most of her school fees B. her two children attended their local private primary school. C. the writer had a good job and a solid income. D. It took a long time for her to make the final decision. 5 Why did the writer want her daughter to go to a private school at first? A. Because her daughter earned an academic scholarship. B. Because she wanted her daughter to receive the best education. C. Because she wanted her daughter to skip the waiting list. D. Because her daughter’s potential was wasted at the public primary school. 6. The underlined word “strain” in paragraph 3 refers to _______. A. anger B. comfort C. burden D. relief 7. What does the passage indicate? A. Parents should make every sacrifice for their children. B. Finance should be taken into account when it comes to education. C. Private school education is not as good as public school education. D. Rather than school education, family influences a person most. C Scientists have found living organisms trapped in crystals(晶体) that could be 50,000 years old. The organisms were found in a hot, but beautiful cave system in Naica, Mexico. These ancient life forms can be seen only with a microscope. Penelope Boston, who leads the Astrobiology Institute at NASA, the space agency of the United States, says the ancient microbes were able to live by eating minerals such as iron. She spoke about the discovery recently at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. If the findings are confirmed, they will show how microbes can survive in extreme conditions. Forty different kinds of microbes and some viruses were found in the underground area. The genetic structures of these organisms are 10 percent different from those of their nearest relatives. The caves in Naica are 800 kilometers deep. They were once used for mining lead. Before the miners began working in the caves, the area was separated from the surface and the outside world. Some of the caves are as big as the large religious centers built during Europe's Middle Ages. There are crystals covering the walls. The caves are so hot that scientists must wear special clothing to keep cool. The clothing keeps the crystals safe from human germs(病菌) or other damage. Boston said the researchers could only work for about 20 minutes at a time before they had to go to a room that was 38 degrees Celsius to cool down. NASA officials would not let Boston share her findings with scientific experts before last week's announcement. So scientists could not say much about the findings. But Norine Noonan, a biologist with the University of South Florida, said she believed them. "Why are we surprised?" Noonan asked. "As a biologist, I would say life on earth is extremely tough and extremely colorful." Boston is also studying microbes commonly found inside caves in other countries, such as Ukraine and the United States. These microbes appear to be impossible to kill. Boston said they show how difficult life on earth can be. 8. The existence of the ancient microbes relies on ________. A. surrounding insects B. diverse plants C. eating minerals D. absorbing air 9. What can we infer about the caves in Naica from the passage? A. The walls are covered by crystals. B. The temperature in the caves is quite low. C. The caves have been explored since they were formed. D. The environment in the caves is difficult to adapt to. 10. What is the biologist Norine Noonan’s attitude towards the findings? A. Critical B. Positive C. Doubtful D. Indifferent 11. What’s the main idea of the passage? A. Living organisms bring hope to scientific research. B. Scientists discover 50,000-year-old super life in Mexico. C. Microbes show great power to survive in terrible conditions. D. Caves provide living environment for living organisms. D To err is human. To blame the other guy is even more human. Common sense is not all that common. Why tell the truth when you can come up with a good excuse? These three popular misquotes are meant to be jokes, and yet they tell us a lot about human nature. To err, or to make mistakes, is indeed a part of being human, but it seems that most people don't want to accept the responsibility for the problem. Perhaps it is the natural thing to do. The original quote about human nature went like this, "To err is human, to forgive is divine(神圣的)." This saying mirrors an ideal: People should be forgiving of others' mistakes. Instead, we tend to do the opposite — find someone else to pass the blame on to. However, taking responsibility for something that went wrong is a making of great maturity. Common sense is what we call clear thought. Having common sense means having a good general plan that will make things work well, and it also means staying with the plan. Common sense tells you that you take an umbrella out into a rainstorm, but you leave the umbrella home when you hear a weather forecast for sunshine. Common sense does not seem to be common for large organizations, because there are so many things going on that one person cannot be in charge of everything. People say that in a large company, "the right hand does not know what the left hand is doing." And what is wrong with a society that thinks that making up a good excuse is like creating a work of art? One of the common problems with making excuses is that people, especially young people, get the idea that it's okay not to be totally honest all the time. There is a corollary (推论) to that: If a good excuse is "good" even if it isn't honest, then where is the place of the truth? 12. According to the passage, which of the following seems the most human? A. To search for truth B. To achieve one’s ideal C. To make fun of others’ mistakes D. To criticize others for one’s own error. 13. According to the author, what is a sign of a man’s maturity? A. Doing things his own way. B. Making as few mistakes as possible. C. Bearing responsibility for his mistakes. D. Thinking seriously about his wrongdoing. 14. What is the author’s opinion about a good excuse? A. Bitter truth is better than a good excuse. B. A good excuse is as rewarding as honesty. C. Inventing a good excuse needs creative ideas. D. Making a good excuse is sometimes a better policy. 15. What would be the best title for this passage? A. Truth or Excuse B. A Mark of Maturity. C. To Blame or to Forgive. D. A Mirror of Human Nature. 第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 Real-life Room Escape Games Real-life room escape games are a type of physical adventure game in which people are locked in a room with other participants and have to use the things in the room to settle a series of puzzles, find clues, and escape the room within a set time limit. The game are based on Escape the Room video games, such as Crimson Room and QP-Shot, created by TAKAGISM Inc. by Toshimitsu Takagi in 2005, in which the player is locked inside a room and must explore his or her surroundings in order to escape. 16 Other inspirations include adventure board games and movies. Real-life room escape games are becoming popular in the United States, Japan, and China. 17 For example, some games require you escape prison cells while others require you escape space stations. 18 Soon, they were exported to North America, Asia and Australia. Examples include the two pioneer companies Hint Hunt and Adventure Rooms. The games were so successful that new locations began opening up across China, in cities big and small, according to Want China Times. In the southern city of Shenzhen, for example, the first escape game location opened last August. 19 "These real-life escape games can help those who stay at home on their computers and iPads all day to experience real social circles," Tian Xiaochuan, who owns two room escape game stores in Jinan, told Want China Times. Earlier this year, The South China Morning Post said the real-life escape games are a hit among "highly stressed students and overworked young professionals". ___20 Some players get so involved that they tear down equipment or decorations inside their "prisons", as Zhu Yumeng, chief operating officer of Beijing room escape game store Taoquan told China Daily. Each game adds local themes to settings. And seven new game locations quickly followed. They should also be brave enough to face their fears. Sometimes the excitement becomes a bit much, though. Weekend or day event escape games have been held in some stores. Permanent real life escape games in a fixed location were first opened in Europe. Players must be observant and use their critical thinking skills to escape the room. 第三部分语言知识运用(共四节,满分75分) 第一节(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 Although my good job at a large company had made my parents happy,I knew I wanted something different. The only place I could 21 working was Facebook. So I 22 from New York to San Francisco and 23 at Facebook headquarters in Palo Alto, 24 to find a job in Facebook. A friend who worked there had agreed to 25 me to a few people around the office. But on the way back from a coffee break,I got 26 . I 27 around outside the Facebook building by myself, trying to 28 myself that I was able enough to work here. I told myself I had already flown across the 29 and now I just needed to go for it. I sat in the hall of the building for what 30 hours. Finally, at the very end of the day, the director of PR walked out and introduced herself. An hour later, I left Facebook office even more 31 about the company. A few days later, the 32 I had spoken with called me and said,“We don’t have a full time job 33 . But if you’re interested in a part-time job, you can come to work here tomorrow.” This was not 34 what I’d been hoping for. But I knew that I was passionate about the work and the company,so 35 I flew from New York to San Francisco. A few months later I was 36 a full time job. Now Facebook is 15 times bigger than it was six years ago. If I hadn’t made it 37 my nervousness six years ago I would never have gotten the 38 . Nowadays whenever I’m nervous about 39 , I think about waiting in the hall of Facebook and I encourage myself to be 40 . 21 .A. remember B. imagine C. permit D. recommend 22.A. rode B. drove C. flew D. walked 23.A. showed up B. took up C. brought up D. broke up 24.A. satisfied B. determined C. unwilling D. inspired 25.A. confirm B. advise C. explain D. introduce 26.A. comfortable B. confused C. nervous D. afraid 27.A. paced B .ran C. turned D. marched 28.A. refuse B. persuade C. prohibit D. restrict 29.A. country B. city C. state D. ocean 30.A. looked like B. felt like C. waited for D. took off 31 .A. excited B. angry C. confused D. disappointed 32.A. man B. friend C. woman D. neighbor 33.A. appropriate B. ready C. rewarding D. open 34.A. firmly B. barely C.only D. exactly 35.A. at once B. once again C. just now D. immediately 36.A. guaranteed B. declared C. clarified D. offered 37.A. through B. in C. out D. away 38.A. salary B. payment C. chance D. promotion 39.A. making a move B. having a try C. doing a favor D. taking a risk 40.A. happy B. optimistic C. brave D. anxious 第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。 China is one of the world’s oldest civilizations. It is a state 41 (locate) in East Asia. China is rich in history, ancient Chinese architecture, culture and has contributed 42 (wide) to global arts. It is common knowledge that gunpowder was first made in China, though it is a misunderstanding ___43 the Chinese used it only for festivals. In fact, the Chinese had various weapons 44 (use) gunpowder. Calligraphy is one of the major arts of China, and has recently entered the western world. Chinese literature 45 (exist) since around 1,000 BC. The total population of China is more than one billion. Around 46 fifth of the world’s population live in China.The Chinese regard red 47___ their lucky color. Red is a symbol of happiness for them and is commonly used at Chinese festivals, weddings, birthdays and other festive 48 (occasion). The giant panda is China’s most loved animal. Pandas are also considered symbols of 49 (brave).The Great Wall of China is the longest wall in the world, built by Qin Shihuang, the first emperor of China. It is the largest engineering project ever ___50 (carry) out in the history of mankind. 第三节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 51.This project requires close teamwork. ______ will be achieved unless we work well together. A.Nothing B. Anything C. Something D. Everything 52. Mary worked here as a ______secretary and ended up getting a full-time job with the company. A.pessimistic B. temporary C. previous D. cautious 53. According to the law, all foreigners have to ______ with the local police within two weeks of arrival. A.associate B. dispute C. negotiate D. register 54. What a terrible experience! _____, you’re safe now—that’s the main thing. A.Anyway B. Besides C. Otherwise D. Therefore 55. —The town is so beautiful! I just love it. —Me too. The character of the town is well _____. A.qualified B. preserved C. decorated D. simplified 56. People complain that decisions to approve or deny a permit are often ______ rather than based on fixed criteria. A.appropriate B. conscious C. arbitrary D. controversial 57. The old rules have to be ______ because they only applied to the circumstances that existed when they were made a hundred years ago. A.developed B. established C. observed D. revised 58. Encourage your children to try new things, but try not to _____ them too hard. A. draw B. strike C. rush D. push 59. Mother always complains that children _____ their shoes very quickly. A.find out B. wash out C. wear out D. set out 60. Check carrots, potatoes, onions and any other vegetables ______ and immediately use or throw away any which show signs of rotting. A.in demand B. in store C. on loan D. on sale 第四节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 61. I guess this Christmas will be my most __________(forget) one. 62. Computers should be made readily __________(access) to teachers and pupils. 63. He patted me __________(gentle) on the back . 64. Everyone should make a __________(contribute) to protecting the environment. 65. To my __________(embarrass), I found my pocket empty. 66. __________(rich) yourself with knowledge and virtue, because they are what you can depend on under any conditions. 67. She has turned down several __________(invite) to star at shows in order to concentrate on her studies. 68. Do you find yourself getting impatient or __________(annoy) with people over unimportant things? 69. The __________(benefit) effects of reading go beyond this. 70. Yesterday Michael __________(apology) to his boss for being late. 第四部分写作(共两节,满分35分) 第一节短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有 10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1,每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 Recently I’ve done a survey in our class on my classmates think of ads. The majority of my classmates take a positively attitude to ads in that ads do bring us convenient. Other students argue that being largely exposed to ads may lead to the sameness range from clothes, shelters to transportation. From my point of the view, I prefer the former opinion to the latter for the following reason. The first reason is rooting in the fact that there were various ads so that people have various choices. Secondly, with ads, it would be difficult to get across a product's basic message. However, ads, instead of making people seem to be the same, contribute greatly to people’s better life. 第二节:书面表达(满分25分) 假定你是李华。你校外籍教师Peter计划在暑假期间回国,他想送给母亲可以代表中国文化的礼物。请你给他写一封邮件,向他推荐礼物。内容包括: 1.推荐礼物:旗袍、中国结等; 2.推荐原因: 3.表达祝福。 注意:1.词数100左右。 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 参考词汇:旗袍Qipao;中国结Chinese knot 试卷第3页,总8页 试题答案 1-3 DBD 4-7 DBCD 8-11 CDBB 12-15 DCAD 16-20 GAFBD 21-25 BCABD 26-30 CABAB 31-35 ACDDB 36-40 DACDC located 42. widely 43. that 44. using 45. has existed 46. a 47. as 48. occasions 49. bravery 50. carried 51-60 ABDAB CDDCB 61 unforgettable 62 accessible 63 gently 64 contribution 65 embarrassment 66 Enrich 67 invitations 68 annoyed 69 beneficial 70 apologized 短文改错: on ∧my加what positively-positive convenient-convenience range-ranging 删除view前面的the reason-reasons rooting-rooted were-are with-without However-Therefore/Thus One possible version Dear Peter, I’m glad to hear that you want to buy some gifts for your mother that represent Chinese culture. And I’m writing to give you some advice. Personally I think you should buy the following gifts:Qipao and Chinese knot. Qipao,a very beautiful traditional dress for Chinese woman can show the real beauty of a woman. I’m sure your mother will like it very much. What’s more, It’s also a good choice for you to buy the Chinese knot. It’s usually hung in the sitting room or cars, which represents good luck. Wish you a good vacation. Please give my best wishes to your family.

  • ID:4-6787492 广东省中山市中山纪念中学2019-2020学年高三年级上学期校内第二次质量检测试题--英语

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    中山纪念中学2019-2020学年高三校内第二次质量检测试题 英 语 第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分) 第一节(共15小题;毎小题2分,满分30分) 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A British roads are some of the safest ones in the world. A study in 2010 that compared more than 30 countries found that 3.8 people per 100,000 died in traffic accidents in the U.K. This number was lower than that in any other country. So, what did British drivers do to achieve this? What are they doing differently? Here are five top tips for drivers who are planning a trip to the U.K. ●People in Britain drive on the left side of the road. In fact, a long time ago people drove on the left in most countries, but now only a few countries do this. Don’t forget that. This also means you must drive the other way around roundabouts(环岛). ●British people feel that waiting should be fair for everybody. If you are in a queue of traffic, then don’t try to push past the vehicles in front of yours. This is called “jumping the queue”. You must wait for your turn, otherwise people may get angry with you. ●You must stop at traffic lights when they are red. In many countries, it is OK to go past red lights if you are turning a corner or if there isn’t any other traffic around. In the U.K. you could have lots of trouble if you do this. ●If other drivers flash their car’s lights at you, then they are probably trying to tell you that they will wait for you to go first. British people don’t like to use their car horn much and they think people who do that are rude. ●If you are involved in an accident, then don’t try to pay the police. The police in the U.K. never take money. And if you try to offer them some, you could end your holiday by visiting a British prison. 1.When you are driving in the U.K. , what should you do? A. Drive past slow cars in front of yours. B. Drive on the right around roundabouts. C. Sometimes pay the police to avoid trouble. D. Not go past red lights even when turning left. 2.What do drivers usually mean if they flash their car lights at you when you are driving in the U.K. ? A. You have done something rude. B. They would like you to go first. C. There are possible dangers ahead. D. They want you to wait for them. 3.What’s the text mainly about? A. Special traffic rules in the U.K. B. Advice for safe driving in the U.K. C. How to deal with traffic accidents. D. Tips for making the U.K. travel plans. B My dog died. Yes, she was very old, deaf, and partially blind. She had long lost her youthful energy. Watching her settle into her bed was as painful for me as it was for her. In the past few months, she had begun to bark at strangers and neighbors. But she used to be friendly even if a child pulled her tail. Knowing her decline doesn’t lessen the loss, however. My husband had found her abandoned on his farm and brought her home. She was a black and dirty bag of bones who got nervous when we approached. I like to think that the 13 years she spent with us were filled with love. Every so often, though, my husband would remind me that her days were counted, and we agreed that if she showed any signs of pain, we would put her down. No need for her to suffer, no need for us to cling(紧紧抓住). I prepared myself for her departure. Yet, when it came on a bright, hot Tuesday afternoon, I wasn’t ready. I was angry about the unfairness of it all. I wanted my two youngest sons, who live out of state, to say their goodbyes. It appears as if we could negotiate with death, with fate. It seems to me that no matter what the circumstances are, we always think we have more time. We fool ourselves to prove our behavior correct. We can’t really live every day as if it were our last. It would be exhausting. We do love our pets, don’t we? They become a necessary part of the family. So I can’t help but cry. I still look for her in my home office, where she slept. I still expect her to come and sit at my feet or to scramble(快速移动)to the front door when one of the children stops by. And I miss my routine of the walks, the feeding and the bathing. I miss her presence and the sense of her being around the house, but more than anything I miss the knowledge that she loved me so unconditionally and without question. 4.How was the author’s life with her dog? A. Surprising. B. Boring. C. Joyful. D. Troublesome. 5.What does the author think about living every day as the last day? A. It is meaningless and exhausting. B. It makes people behave themselves. C. It helps people value every day. D. It makes people refuse death. 6.How did the author feel when her dog died? A. She was at a loss about how to deal with death. B. She was happy that the dog was now free from pain. C. She was calm because of the preparations for the day. D. She was heartbroken as if she had lost a family member. 7. What is the author’s purpose in writing the text? A. To persuade people to keep a pet. B. To persuade people to raise a dog. C. To tell people to cherish their loved ones. D. To advise people to accompany their pets. C Many Westerners have the idea that everyone in China knows how to do kung fu. This is, of course, a silly belief. But it is true that kung fu is a big part of Chinese culture. Like most people from the West, I was first introduced to kung fu through Hong Kong actions films. Stars like Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan made kung fu popular in the Western world. The flashy and impressive performances they gave in films like Rumble in the Bronx and Enter the Dragon made them household names in the U.S. and elsewhere. However, my own personal interest in kung fu was actually inspired by a hip hop groups. Wu-Tang Clan, founded in the the early 1990s in New York City, is one of the most influential hip hop group in history. In their songs, they sometimes mention philosophical concepts that come from Wudang quan ---a classic Chinese martial art from which they take their name---and Shaolin Temple. I was just a teenager when I first started listening to Wu-Tang Clan---little did I know that I would actually end up living in China later in my life! I myself do not practice kung fu. However, the concepts behind it are quite interesting to me. There is a Bruce Lee quote that I often think of when I’m struggling with challenges in life. “Be formless, shapeless, like water,” he once said. By this, he meant that you should be ready to adapt to and change your attitudes or beliefs when you face difficulties. I think this is a good way to deal with life. 7. What does “ a silly belief ” in Paragraph 1 refer to? A. All Chinese people can do kung fu. B. China is most famous for its kung fu. C. Kung fu is a big part of Chinese culture. D. Many Westerners admire kung fu. 7. What inspired the author’s interest in kung fu? A. Hong Kong action movies. B. A TV program about kung fu. C. Kung fu stars in Hollywood. D. A US hip hop group. 7. What do we know about the Wu-Tang Clan? A. They have Chinese culture in their songs. B. They taught the author how to do Wudang quan. C. They performed Chinese martial arts in the U.S. D. They showed the author the way to live in China. 7. What can we learn from the last paragraph? A. The author was sorry that he couldn’t do kung fu. B. The concepts of kung fu change over time. C. The spirit of kung fu helps the author overcome difficulties. D. Bruce Lee was the most popular martial arts master. D You may not like it, but learning English is absolutely necessary if you want to succeed abroad. Not just that, you have show your knowledge of the English language on one of the two major English proficiency(精通)tests: the IELTS or the TOEFL. Which test you should take depends on your goal. The TOFEL remains the top exam in the U.S. But the IELTS is gaining ground in the U.S. and it has already been the preferred test in the U.K. and Australia. There are also differences in the tests themselves. They both measure the four main language requirements: speaking, reading, writing and listening. However, the tests are very different in their form and methodology. “Compared with the TOFEL, the IELTS test requires you to actually have a grasp of the language and an ability to use it, rather than simply being well prepared for the test,” explained IELTS examiner Julian Fisher. The key reasons for this are that the IELTS test required fill-in answers besides multiple choice(选择题), and its speaking section is done with a real examiner instead of a computer. The examinee is given a topic related to daily life. “The face-to-face interview with a trained speaker of English allows for communicative interaction(互动), which reflects real academic and workplace situations,” said senior exam marketing officer Pang Shuai. What scores do I need? For the IELTS, a band score of 5 to 7 is fine for the majority of undergraduate and post-graduate programs. For top schools, you will probably need at least a 7. When it comes to the TOFEL, there is a range. It all depends on the colleges. Ordinary schools will let you get by with a score as low as 60. For a top-tier university, on the other hand, you will need to score upward of 100 points on your TOFEL. 7. What does Paragraph 2 suggest? A. The TOEFL score is preferred in Australian universities. B. Universities in the U.K. mainly see students’ IELTS scores. C. The IELTS is more widely accepted than the TOEFL by US schools. D. In the U.S. , the TOEFL score is not as important as it once was. 7. Which of the following is a difference between the TOEFL and the IELTS? A. There are no fill-in answers in the TOEFL tests. B. The IELTS tests focus more on test-taking skills. C. The IELTS interviews test-takers on the computer. D. The TOEFL checks four English skills, while the IELTS doesn’t. 7. What does Pang Shuai think of the face-to-face interview? A. More exams should take this exam form. B. It is helpful in one’s studies and at work. C. This exam form can make test-takers more relaxed. D. A test-taker can score high simply by preparing well. 7. Which of the following is correct if you want to go to a top university in the U.K. or U.S. ? A. A 7 on the IELTS is probably a must. B. A score of 60 on the TOEFL is enough. C. You should take both the TOEFL and the IELTS. D. You need a 7.5 on the IELTS for post-graduate programs. 第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 In today’s fast-paced and sometimes uncaring society, it can be challenging to find anything to lift your spirits when you feel sad. In spite of how bad things may appear, there are some things you can do to get happy and enjoy your day. 16 Get yourself an attitude of gratitude. For centuries, people over the world have recognized how powerful gratitude is when it comes to lifting one’s spirits. Frequently we are so caught up in what we lack that we fail to recognize all that we possess. Often, we are only reminded of the blessings present in the world when we meet someone worse off than we are or when those blessings are no longer a reality. 17 Keep a list of things for which you are grateful-in case you need to jog your memory. Brighten someone’s day. It may be you who are feeling the blues, but when you brighten someone else’s day, yours automatically becomes brighter Smiles spread easily. 18 Get some fresh air. Fresh air refreshes the senses and makes you more likely to get up and do something rather than sit there in an unpleasant mood. 19 Even just walking in your flower or vegetable garden will do the trick. ___20 Because the heart rate and breathing rate increase during exercise a greater amount of oxygen is delivered to the body tissue. In addition to relieving stress, heightened physical activity will decrease the level of the stress hormone(荷尔蒙). As such, your mood can quickly change from a state of stress to one of joyfulness. A. Get some exercise. A. Be thankful for what you have. A. Here are some great ways to lift your spirits. A. Go for a walk with a friend or take a bike ride. A. Do what you can to start an outbreak of happy faces. A. This promotes the production of the body’s natural pain relievers. A. Organize cupboards, garages and other areas that have become untidy. 第三部分语言知识运用(共四节,满分75分) 第一节(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 The sandwich man Michael rises every morning at 4:00, in good and bad weather, and walks into his sandwich shop. By 5:50, he’s making the rounds of the shelters on Centre Streets. He __21__ out 200 sandwiches to the homeless, before beginning his workday. It started 20 years ago when Michael came across a homeless man named John. He began to help him __22__ effort then. Day after day, he brought John some food and, when it was really __23__, a resting place in his car while he worked. Once he asked John if he wanted to get cleaned up. It was a(n) __24__ offer, because Michael thought John would refuse. __25__, John said, “Are you going to wash me?” Michael knew that he was looking at a __26__ of his promise. It was at the moment that Michael __27__ to help the homeless. Michael began his work. He received no sponsorship, saying, “I’m not getting media __28__. I just want to do some good in my way. There are days when it’s snowing, and I have a hard time leaving my warm bed and the __29__ of my family to go downtown with sandwiches. But I’ve __30__.” Michael makes 200 sandwiches every day for the past 20 years. “I don’t simply __31__ the sandwiches on a table for the homeless to pick up. I shake their hands and __32__ them a good day,” says Michael. Once Mayor (市长) Koch came to make the rounds with him. They __33__ the media, and it seemed like it was just the two of them. But of all Michael’s __34__, working side by side with the Mayor was not as important as working next to someone else… A man had __35__ from the sandwich takers, and Michael thought about him from time to time. He hoped the man had moved on to a more __36__ environment. One day, the man came back, greeting Michael and __37__ sandwiches of his own to hand out. He said Michael’s daily food, warm handshakes and wishes had given him the __38__ he badly needed. After achieving some success, he decided to do the same thing as Michael. The moment needed no __39__. The two men worked silently, side by side, handing out their sandwiches. It was another day on Centre Streets, but a day with just a little more __40__. 21. A. picks B. sets C. gives D. finds 22. A. with B. around C. from D. over 23. A. sunny B. warm C. cloudy D. cold 24. A. silly B. empty C. crazy D. free 25. A. Fortunately B. Disappointedly C. Surprisingly D. Thankfully 26. A. test B. gift C. trick D. view 27. A. demanded B. agreed C. pretended D. determined 28. A. benefit B. attention C. sympathy D. information 29. A. comfort B. wealth C. value D. honor 30. A. suffered B. hesitated C. managed D. wondered 31. A. check B. lay C. match D. cover 32. A. witness B. predict C. follow D. wish 33. A. ignored B. blamed C. confirmed D. handled 34. A. situations B. memories C. schedules D. professions 35. A. escaped B. volunteered C. disappeared D. survived 36. A. competitive B. complex C. familiar D. stable 37. A. carrying B. seeking C. occupying D. treating 38. A. responsibility B. permission C. encouragement D. achievement 39. A. purpose B. dialogue C. relief D. doubt 40. A. luck B. fun C. pride D. hope 第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) The Wandering Earth is a Chinese science fiction movie ____41___(direct) by Frant Gwo, ___42____ is based on the novel of the same name by Liu Cixin, and ___43___(release) on February 5, 2019, the Chinese New Year’s Day. After learning the sun is dying out, people all around the world build giant planet thrusters (星球推力器) to move the earth out of ___44___ orbit and send it to a new star system. The 2,5000-year journey came with ___45___(expect) danger. In order to save humanity, a group of young people came out bravely and fought hard for everyone’s ___46___(survive). We are impressed to see the theme of this film. It doesn’t particularly show somebody’s ability to save our world ___47___ shows all human beings are working together, ___48___(spare) no effort to save this world. The Wandering Earth is seen by people ___49___ the dawn of Chinese science fiction movies. It means that China’s sci-fi movies have ___50___(official) set sail. 第三节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 51. After ________ seemed an endless wait, it was his turn to enter the director's office. A.which B.that C.it D.what 52. Finally, my thanks go to my tutor, who has offered a lot of suggestions and comments on my paper and _ every page of my draft. A. approved B. quoted C. polished D. folded 53. The officer insisted that Michael did not follow the correct in applying for a visa. A. pattern B. procedure C. program D. perspective 54.The island is__________ attractive in spring and autumn because of the pleasant weather in both seasons. A. partly B. merely C. nearly D. equally 55.There are some________ when you have to change your mind just before doing it. A.situations B.occasions C.circumstances D.conditions 56. Studies show that people are more to suffer from back problems if they always sit before computer screens for long hours. A. possible B. probable C. likely D. sure 57.Teachers have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional ________. A. consequence B. independence C.competence D.intelligence 58.The Nobel Prizes are to be awarded to the people or institutions that have achieved the most in a certain area________ their nationalities. A.because of B.regardless of C.in case of D.in terms of 59. The experiment has_________ the possibility of the existence of any life on that planet, but it does not mean there is no life on other planets. A. found out B. pointed out C. ruled out D. carried out 60.“Perhaps we need to send for Dr. Smith to see what we can do about it,” Father suggested to his neighbor who had come to discuss the problem. A. tentatively B. thoughtlessly C. definitely D. rudely 第四节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 61.An example can back up this standpoint: The American financial crisis caused by over (consume)made the people of the world worse off. 62.This book presents the far-reaching (argue)that not only should we have a new world order but that we already do. 63.If you again give him a long face, he will have even more nightmares all night. We should have (mercy) hearts. 64.It is perseverance that keeps us continually doing something valuable and (admire) in spite of difficulties and discouragement. 65.Volunteering is becoming (increase) popular in China and people are now aware that helping others is helping themselves. 66. We do therefore feel that their (resist) will be unable to stop our progress. 67. Many people think he is one of the most (ambition) politicians of our times. 68. She wants to continue her study in the United States, but her parents (approve) of her plan. 69.The government need to make greater (contribute) to international causes, such as poverty reduction or climate change. 70. Although it is very common, flu is one of the most (avoid) health concerns among children. 第四部分写作(共两节,满分35分) 第一节短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) 假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有 10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。 注意:1,每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。 How time flies! It won’t be long after I say goodbye to my high school life. Look back on what has happened, I really want to share one of the most unforgettable experience with you. It was my first time to give English speech. I felt worried, so I turned to Mrs. Lee, my English teacher with help. She had encouraged me to work hardly and practice more. Confidently, I practiced them countless hours. My performance was very successful that it impressed my classmates a lot. I was not a talent speaker and I knew it took the SWEAT to finally taste the SWEET success. 第二节:书面表达(满分25分) 假定你是李华,你刚参加完本市组织的一场国际马拉松比赛,赛后应邀给组委会写一封邮件反馈自己比赛的感受并提出一些个人建议。 内容包括: 1. 此次比赛办得好的方面; 1. 此次比赛待改进的方面以及你的相应建议。 注意:1. 词数100左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。 参考词汇:城市风光 city scenery; 城市交通 city transportation; 热情的观众 enthusiastic audience; 合理的赛道 reasonable racing track; 充足的补给 adequate supply Dear Committee, I am writing to provide some feedback related to the marathon I have just attended. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Hoping our city’s marathon better and better! Sincerely, Li Hua PAGE 1 英语试题答案 阅读理解(共15小题;毎小题2分,满分30分) 1-5 D B B C C 6-10 D C A D A 11-15 C B A B A 七选五(共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 16-20 CBEDA 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分) 21.C A D B C 26.A D B A C 31.B D A B C 36.D A C B D 语法填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 41.directed 42.which 43.was released 44.the/its 45.unexpected 46.survival 47.but 48.sparing 49.as 50.officially 词汇单项选择(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 51.D C B D B 56.C C B C A 单句词形变化(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分) 61 consumption argument merciful admirable increasingly 66.resistance ambitious disapprove contributions avoidable 短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分) How time flies! It won’t be long after I say goodbye to my high school life. Look back on what has happened, I really want to share one of the most unforgettable experience with you. It was my first time to give ^ English speech. I felt worried, so I turned to Mrs. Lee, my English teacher with help. She had encouraged me to work hardly and practice more. Confidently, I practiced them countless hours. My performance was very successful that it impressed my classmates a lot. I was not a talent speaker and I knew it took the SWEAT to finally taste the SWEET success. 书面表达(满分25分) Dear Committee, I am writing to provide some feedback related to the marathon I have just attended. Having trained myself for nearly one year, I signed up for the marathon held in our city, during which I not only appreciated the beautiful city scenery and convenient city transportation, but also enjoyed the local audience’s enthusiasm. Moreover, the reasonable racing track and the adequate supply insured the possibility of gaining a better running performance for us. It raining a little bit, I still successfully achieved my personal best. However, since it’s the first time to hold such a professional event, our ciyt still has a long way to go. I’m wondering if we could pay more attention to organizational details, such as the number of toilets for runners during the race and the training for some inexperienced volunteers. Hoping our city’s marathon better and better! Sincerely, Li Hua experiences Looking before talented hard so it或删除them \ for an

  • ID:4-6786364 2019-2020学年上饶市第一次高考模拟考试高三英语试卷(无音频听力有文字材料)

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题

    英语参考答案 一.听力理解 1-5 CBCAC 6-10 CBBAA 11-15 BBCAB 16-20 ACCBB 二.阅读理解 21-23 BCD 24-27 BCDA 28-31 ABDC 32-35 DCAC 36-40 GEFAC 三.完型填空 41-45 CDABC 46-50 DABBC 51-55 BDABC 56-60 CADDA 四.语法填空 61 thrilling 62 who 63 up 64 that 65 will be greeted 66 hills 67 addition 68 comfortable 69 their 70 lost 五.短文改错 1.am—was 2. had后加 a 3. that——what 4. 去掉 on 5. feel——feeling 6. ever——never 7. cheap——cheaper 8. lickily——lucky 9. them——it 10. when——while 六.书面表达 Possible Version Dear friends, How time flies! Two weeks have passed since we attended the Chinese Culture Experience Program, which we have all benefited a lot from. During the program,we have studied, lived and played together,which gives the opportunity to promote our friendship. Preparing for the program has enabled us to know each other better.Your rich knowledge and passion for Chinese culture leaves me a deep impression.I think all my classmates have learned a great deal from our communication and all kinds of activities. Now, on behalf of my classmates,I wish you a safe return.I also hope that there will be more events of this kind in the future. Thank you. Yours sincerely, Li Hua 一模听力原文 TEXT 1 M: What do you think we should take to drink? Most people like cola, don’t they, or some beer? W: Yes, but they aren’t very healthy drinks. We could take some apple juice. TEXT 2 M: Don’t you need to leave soon to see your dentist? W: Yes. If i leave now, I’ll be able to get to the library. Then i can pick up my clothes at the dry cleaner’s on the way home after I’ve had my teeth checked. TEXT 3 M: What’s the weather like this week? W: The week will begin with snow which will end by Tuesday morning. Then it’s cloudy every day until Thursday afternoon when we’ll have some sunshine. TEXT 4 W: Did you see we’ve Got Talent last night? M: Oh, yeah. But i had to stop when the girl band came on. Did they know how annoying they were? My favorite was the song the boy sang! And that dance group were pretty well, but they didn’t deserve to win as much. TEXT 5 M: Are you getting a new laptop today, Millie? W: No way. I can’t afford that. I’m going to look at the phones. M: Oh right. I’m thinking about getting a new keyboard for my computer. W: Ok. Let’s look for that first. TEXT 6 W: Can i help you, sir? M: Yes. I want a T-shirt. How much are these? W: They are 20 dollars each. M: I like the blue one, but it’s not my size. Have you got a larger one? W: Just a minute. Yes, here it is. Do you want to try it on? The dressing room is over there. M: It’s unnecessary. I always wear this size. Can i get a discount? W: You can get a 10% discount if you take two. M: Then I’ll also take this green one. I love this color too. TEXT 7 W: David, i heard you are going to take an ESL course. M: Yes, i don’t speak English very well. I want to improve my English. W: So do you just want to speak better or do you have to prepare for an important exam? M: I just want to speak the language better. I think it can help me with my work in the future. W: So when will your course start? M: On October 21st. W: They day after tomorrow? But didn’t you say you’d teach me to play the guitar that day? M: The classes take place in the evening. TEXT 8 M: The teacher has suggested four places for our sports day. The first one is Tree Stadium. W: I know it. We have held our sports day there three times. It’s free--we won’t have to pay anything to use it--but it doesn’t really have enough seats. We have 1,000 students but it can only hold 700. M: So how about Polo Stadium? W: I have never been there before, but i know its canteen food is delicious --and it takes at least three months to book the place. I don’t think there’s enough time to get that stadium. M: Speaking of delicious food, i know that the food at Golden Stadium is also very good. What di you think about that stadium? W: Well, its tracks is a little narrow. M: Oh, i didn’t think of that. So what about the Global Stadium ? it can hold 1,200. W: It’s a new stadium, but it’s expensive. It’s three times more expensive than other places. TEXT 9 M: Hello, are you Dr Lindsey? The Returning Students Advisor? W: Yes, that’s right. Please come in. M: Thanks. W: Let me see.--it looks like you’ve taken a long break from school, and i understand you want to have a chat about what you should do. M: Yes, it’s such a big challenge. W: I know. Before i began working here at the university, I taught primary school for nearly ten years. It takes a lot of courage to go back to school! M: I’ve been teaching teenagers for a few years, but i think I’d be happier teaching adults. W: Well, coming back to the university can be both difficult and very useful. What is your greatest weakness? M: I think my confidence is getting better. I’m definitely not shy. To tell the truth, I’m afraid I’m rather behind the times about many things. W: How old are you, 35? people at your age still go back to school for further education. I was a bit the same way. I didn’t study at the university till i had a family. TEXT 10 Hi, I’m Ben Conner and I’ve been invited here to talk about my experience running the Arctic Marathon. First of all, let me tell you a bit about myself. I’ve done several different jobs--I’ve worked on a building site, I’ve taught in schools, I’ve written for a music magazine, and a few years ago i set up a photography company, which I’m pleased to say is still doing well. Back to the topic, the first challenge we were faced with was finding a suitable place to train. One of the guys on the marathon used a supermarket’s freezer room to practice running in for two hours a day. Some guys got training in the cold river. I chose to practice running at our local indoor ski center. When ti came to the marathon itself, it wasn’t the cold temperatures that affected us most but the ground conditions. There was soft snow in most places and your legs would frequently just give out. So, was it worth eight months of training? Would i do ti again? Most definitely, although there was the possibility of being attacked by polar bears.

  • ID:4-6786351 2020高考英语二轮复习词性变换

    高中英语/高考专区/二轮专题/语法专题/构词法

    2020高考英语二轮复习词性变换 1. ability (n. )能力;才能---able (a.)---unable (a..) —disability (n. ) —disabled (a.) be able to do…= be capable of doing 2. absence (n. ) 缺席;不在 --- absent (a.) ---present (a..) – presence (n.) be absent from; be present at 3. absolute (a.) 绝对的;完全的---absolutely (adv.) 4. abundant (a.) 丰富的;充裕的 ---abundance (n.) be abundant in 5. academic (a.) 学院的,理论的 (n.) 大学教师 --- academy (n.) 学院 6. accept (v.) 接受---acceptable (a.)可接受的 - –refuse (opp.) 拒绝 7. access (n.) 通路,入门;(v.)接近;存取 ---accessible (a.) have access to(to为介词)可以使用;可以接触 8. accurate (a.) 正确的,精确的 --- accuracy (n.) –accurately (adv.)-- (opp.)inaccurate 不准确 9. achieve (v.) 取得,达到 --- achievement (n.) 10. acquire (v.) 获得,学到 --- acquisition (n.) 11. act (n. ) 法令,条例;(v.)表演;行动---action (n.) –active (a.) 主动的 —inactive (a.) —actively (adv.) —activity (n. ) 活动 --passive (a.) 被动的 ---actor (n.) –actress (n.) 12. actual (a.) 实际的;现实的–actually (adv.) = as a matter of fact 13. adapt (v.) 使适应;改编 ---adaptation (n.) 适应,顺应;改编,改编本 ---adaptable (a.) 有适应能力的adapt oneself to 适应于; adapt…(for sth.) from sth. 改编 14. add (v.) 添加,增加;补充说- --addition (n.) ---additional (a.) –additionally (adv.) add…to 将…(添)加到… add to 增加,加强 add up加起来 add up to共计达 in addition (to) 另外,除此之外 15. addict (n.) 成瘾的人 ---addicted (a.) –addition (n.) ---addictive (a.) 使成瘾的;上瘾的;易令人沉溺的 be addicted to (to为介词)对…上瘾 16. adjust (v.) 调整,使适应 ---adjustment (n.) --- adjustable (a.) 17. admire (v.) 钦佩,羡慕 ---admiration (n.) --- admirable (a.) 18. admit (v.) 承认,准许 ( admitted, admitted) --- admission (n.) 19. adopt (v.) 收养,采用 ---adoption (n.) --- adopted (a.) 20. advance (v.) 推进,促进;前进 (n.)前进,提升—advanced (a.) 先进的;高等的 21. advantage (n.) 有点;好处 ---disadvantage (n.) take advantage of利用;欺骗,占…的便宜 22. adventure (n.) 冒险,奇遇 --- adventurous (a.) 23. advertise (v.) 为…做广告---advertisement (n.) 24. advise (v.) 建议,劝告----adviser (n.) 顾问,忠告者 --- advice (n.) a piece of advice 25. affect (v.) 影响 --- affection (n.) 影响,感情 = have an effect on 26. Africa (n.) 非洲 --- African (a.) (n.) 27. age (n.) 年纪 --- aged (a.)老年的 —elderly (a.) 28. agree (v.) 同意--- agreement (n.) --- disagree (opp)—disagreement (n.) 29. agriculture (n.) 农业 – agricultural (a.) 30. allow (v.) 准许,允许---allowance (n.) 允许;紧贴,补助 31. amaze (v.) 惊奇, 震惊 --- amazement (n.) ---amazed (a.) –amazed (a.) to one’s amazement 32. ambition (n.) 抱负,雄心---ambitious (a.) 33. amuse (v.) 使…快乐 --- amusement (n.) – amused (a.) --- amusing (a.) to one’s amusement 34. analyze (v.) 分析 --- analysis (n.) 35. anger (n.) 愤怒 --- angry (a.) 36. announce (v.) 宣布, 宣告 --- announcement (n.) --- announcer (n.) 37. annoy (v.) 使烦恼 – annoyed (a.) --- annoying (a.) --- annoyance (n.) to one’s annoyance 38. annual (a. ) 一年一次的,每年的 (n.) 年刊 --- annually (a.) 39. anxious (a.) 忧虑的,焦急的 --- anxiety (n.) 40. apologize (v.) 道歉 --- apology (n.) apologize to sb. for sth.; make an apology to sb. for sth.因…事向某人道歉 41. appear (v.) 出现 ---appearance (n.)外貌,外观;出现,露面 42. apply (v.) 申请 , 应用--- application (n.) 申请表 --- applicant (n.) 申请人 --- applied (a.) 应用的 43. appoint (v.) 约定,任命 – appointment (n.) -----make an appointment 约会 44. appreciate (v.) 欣赏,感激 --- appreciation (n.) 45. approve (v.) 批准,同意 --- approval (n.) approve of…赞成 (opp.) disapprove (v.) 不赞成 disapprove of… 46. argue (v.) 争辩,辩论—argument (n.) 47. arrange (v.) 安排 --- arrangement (n.) 48. arrive (v.) 到达 – arrival (n.) 49. Asia (n.) 亚洲 ---Asian (a.) (n.) 50. assess (v.) 评价,估价 --- assessment (n.) 51. assist (v.) 帮助,协助--- assistance (n.) 帮助,援助 ---assistant (n.) 助手,助理 52. associate (v.) 联系,交往--- association (n.) --- associated (a.) 53. assume (v.) 假定,采取 --- assumption (n.) 54. astonish (v.) 使惊讶 --- astonished (a.) --- astonishing (a.) – astonishment (n.) 55. astronaut (n.) 宇航员 --- astronomy (n.) 天文学 --- astronomer (天文学家) 56. athlete (n.) 运动员 --- athletic (a.) 运动员的;运动的;体格健壮的;行动敏捷的 57. attend (v.)参加,照料 -- attendance (n.)出席,参加 - -attender (n.) 出席者;参加者 58. attention (n) 注意,专心--- attentive (a) –attentively (ad v.) 59. attract (v.) 吸引 – attraction (n.) --- attractive (a.) 60. aware (a.) 知道的,明白的 --- awareness (n.) be aware of 61. bacterium (n.) 细菌 ---(pl. ) bacteria 62. bad (a.) 坏的 --- badly (adv. ) (worse, worst) --- good (a.) – well (a.) (adv.) (better, best) 63. base (n.) 基地,根据地 (v.) 以…为基地 -- basic (a.) --- basically 大体上 64. basis (n.) 基础,要素 --- (pl.) bases 65. bath (n.) 洗澡,浴室—bathe (v.) – bathroom (n.) --- bathtub (n.) 澡盆 66. bear (v.) 忍受 (bore, borne)--- bearable (a.) 可忍受的 --- unbearable (opp.) 不可忍受的 67. beat (v.) 敲打,跳动,打赢 (beat, beaten) 68. beautiful (a.) 美丽的--- beauty (n. ) --- beautify (v.) 69. behave (v.) 行为,守规矩 --- behavior (n.) 70. belief (n) 信条,信念 ---(pl.) beliefs-- believe (v.) --- believable (a.) ---(opp.) unbelievable 71. begin (v.) 开始,着手 (began, begun)--- beginning (n.) 72. bend v. 使弯曲 (bent, bent)be bent on doing 一心想,决心要做… 73. benefit n.利益, 好处vt.有益于, 有助于 --- beneficial adj.有益的, 受益的 benefit from…从…中受益; be beneficial to对…有益 74. bitter adj.苦的, 痛苦的, 怀恨的 ---–unpleasant adj不愉快的;讨厌的 75. boring adj. 无聊的,乏味的(修饰物)—---bored adj.无聊的, 无趣的, 烦人的(用于人) 76. botany n.植物学 -------botanical adj.植物学的 77. brave adj.勇敢的 ---bravery n.勇敢 ------coward n.懦弱的人, 胆小的人 78. boycott n./vt. 联合抵制, 排斥 79. breath n. 呼吸, 气息 -----breathe v.呼吸, 发出 ----breathless adj. 气喘吁吁的 80. bring vt. 拿来, 带来 ---brought(分去式)---brought(过去分词) 81. bury vt.埋葬, 掩埋, 隐藏 ---buried(过去式或过去分词) be buried in sth 埋头做某事 82. business n.商业, 买卖, 交易, 生意 ---businessman ----businesswoman 83. calculate v.计算, 考虑, 计划, 打算----calculation n.计算, 考虑 ----calculator n.计算机, 计算器 84. calm adj.(天气、海洋等)静的, 平静的, 镇静的, 沉着的 v. (使)平静, (使)镇定, 平息 calmness n.平静, 冷静, 镇静 85. care n.注意, 照料, vi.关心, 顾虑, 照顾, 喜爱vt.在意 ----careful(a.) ----careless (a.) 86. catch v.捕获, 赶上(车船等), 发觉, 感染(疾病)---(caught, caught) 87. caution n.小心, 谨慎, 警告 vt.警告 ----cautious adj. 小心的,谨慎的 88. celebration n.庆祝, 庆典 -----celebrate v.庆祝 89. certain adj.确定的, 某一个----certainly adv. -----certainty n. -----uncertainty n.无常, 不确定 90. challenge n.挑战 vt.向...挑战----challenging adj.具有挑战性的 91. change n.改变, 变化, 找回的零钱 vt.改变, 变革 ----changeable adj.可改变的 92. character n. 人物,特点,性格,品质----characteristic n. 特性,特征 93. chemical adj.化学的n.化学制品, 化学药品----chemist n.化学家, 药剂师-chemistry n.化学 94. choice n.选择, 抉择, 精选品----choose v.选择, 选定(chose, chosen) 95. cloth n.布, 织物, 衣料------clothes n.衣服, [总称]被褥, 各种衣服----clothing n.(总称)衣服 96. collect vt. 收集----collection n. 收藏, 征收, 搜集品, 捐款 ----collective adj.集体的 n.集体 97. comfort n.安慰, 舒适 vt.安慰 ----comfortable adj.舒适的 98. communicate v.沟通, 交流,传达-----communication n. 99. compete vi.比赛, 竞争 ----competition n.竞争, 竞赛 ----competitor n.竞争者 ---competitive adj. 竞争的;有竞争力的;(指人)好竞争的 100. conclude v.作出结论vt.推断-----conclusion n. 结论 101. confident adj.自信的, 确信的----confidence n.信心----confidently adv.信赖地, 安心地 102. conduct n.行为, 操行v. 组织, 实施,管理-----conductor n. (乐队)指挥 1. crazy adj.疯狂的 ----craze n.狂热,疯狂;风行一时的东西; be crazy about 对…疯狂/着迷; like crazy拼命地;发疯似地 2.create vt.创造,产生 (syn.)----produce creative adj - -creation n. 创造,创建 ----creativity n.创造力 ----creator n.创造者;创作者 ----create jobs/opportunities/ a good image/ wealth 3. crime n.罪犯 ----criminal n.罪犯 ----commit a crime 犯罪 4. cross vt.穿过----crossing n.十字路口 ----crossroads n.交叉路口 ----at the crossroads 5. crowd n. 人群 vt. 拥挤----crowded adj. 拥挤的 ----crowdedness n. 6.cruel adj. 残忍的,残酷的---be cruel to sb ----cruelly adv.----cruelty n. 残忍 7. culture n.文化 ---cultural adj. ----cultural difference (shock) 文化差异;文化冲击 -----multi-culture 多元文化 8. cure n&v. 治疗;医好---a cure for cancer ----cure sb of one’s disease/one’s habit 9. curious adj. 好奇的;奇异的(about/to do sth) --curiosity n.好奇心;求知欲 satisfy one’s curiosity 满足好奇心 -----out of curiosity 出于好奇 10. cycle vi骑自行车;循环----recycle v.再循环,回收再用----cyclist n.骑自行车的人 11.damage n&vt 毁坏,损害 -----do /cause damage to (the earth) 对...造成损害 12 danger n.危险 dangerous adj. 危险的 endanger vt 使……濒临危险 ----endangered animals 濒危动物 be in danger/be at risk 处于危险中 13. dead. adj. 死的 the dead/living ----death n. 死亡 ----cause many deaths and injuries造成很多伤亡 deadly adj.致命的 die v. 死亡 dying adj. 垂死的,渴望的 be dying for sth./to do sth 14. decide n.决定 decisive adj. 决定性的 decision n. make a decision 15. declare vt.声明;断言 --- declaration n. declare war on Japan 像日本宣战 16. decorate vt.装饰,修饰 ---- decoration n. be decorated with 17. decline n&v.下降,婉拒 I offered to give them a lift but they declined . 18. decrease/increase n&v. 减少/增加--- increase/decrease to/by 20% 19. defend vt. 防守,保卫 ---defense in defense of 为保护某人 为……辩护 20. deliberate adj. deliberately adv.故意地 ---on purpose 21. delight n 快乐;乐事 delighted adj. be delighted with/by/at sb/sth take delight in 喜欢,以……为乐 delight sb 使某人高兴 to one’s delight 使某人高兴的是 22. deliver vt.投递,接生,发表讲话 deliver parcels/ a baby/ a speech delivery n. 23.depend vi依赖;依靠depend on sb dependent adj. 依赖的 be dependent on sb independent adj.独立的 be independent from/of sb independence n.独立 24. deep adj/adv. 深的 --deeply adj.深深的 -- depth n.深度 -- deepen v.加深 far/deep into the night深夜 be deeply moved/touched/affected ---Still water runs deep.静水流深/大智若愚 25. describe vt.描述,描写 description n. give a description of sth 26. design vt.设计 n.图案,图样 designer 设计师 be designed to 设计的目的是,计划是 27. desperate adj.不顾一切的;绝望的 ---be desperate for/to do sth 极渴望--- desperation n.绝望 28.destroy vt.破坏,毁坏-- destroyed buildings 被毁的建筑物 destruction n. cause destruction to sth 29. determine vt.决定,决心 be determined to do 决心做 determination n. 决心 30. develop v. 发展,使发达,开发 冲洗(照片)development --- with the development of developing world/developed world --- develop an interest in sth ----develop a new product 31.devote vt.把……奉献于; devote oneself/one’s life/one’s energy/time to sth/doing sth devotion n.忠心,奉献精神 be devoted to sb 挚爱某人,对……全心全意 32.differ vi. differ from sth in …在什么方面不同于… different adj. difference n. --tell the difference between A and B --- make a difference (to) 有影响,改变 ;大有作为 33. difficult adj. difficulty n.困难 with/without difficulty, have difficulty with sth./(in) doing sth 做某事有困难 34. direct adj.直接的 --(反)indirect speech间接引语 ----direct v.指挥,指导,导演 director n. 导演 ----direction n.方向 in the direction of朝…方向 35. disable v.使……残疾 ---disabled adj.残疾的 ---help the disabled帮助残疾人 ---disability n. ---The traffic accident disabled him. 36.disappear vi. 消失 (反)-- appear ---disappearance n. (反) appearance 37.disagree with sb on/about/over sth ---disagreement ----be in disagreement with 38. disappoint vt.使……失望 disappointment n. to one’s disappointment令某人失望的是 make sb disappointed ;sb. be/feel disappointed with sb./at sth.某人对…感到失望 39. discover vt.发现 discovery n. make a discovery 40.discrimination n.歧视 discriminate vt.歧视,区分 discriminate A from B把…区分开来 discriminate against women 歧视妇女 41.discuss vt discussion n.讨论 42.distance n.距离 distant adj.远的 , 遥远的 in the distance 在远方 keep sb at a distance 疏远某人,与某人保持距离 43. distinguish v.辨别distinguish A from B /distinguish between A and B 区别/辨别… distinction n 差别 ;名声 44.distribute v.分布,分配 distribution n. 分配 distribute sth to /among sb把…分发/分配给… 45. disturb vt.打扰;扰乱 Don’t disturb the papers on my desk. ----disturbed adj.心神不宁的,心烦意乱的 ---disturbing adj.引起烦恼的;令人不安的 a disturbing piece of news. 46.donate v.捐赠 donate sth to sb将…捐给… donation n. He donated 10,000$ to the earthquake disaster area. a donation of 200$ 二百美元的捐款 47. educate v.教育 educator教育者 education n. ---receive a good education受到良好的教育 48. effect n.效果,作用 effective adj.有效果的 affect v. 影响 have an effect on ---take effect起到作用,有效果 ---come into effect 生效;奏效 49. elect v. election n.选举 He was elected president of the USA in 1986. 50. electricity n. 电 electric adj.电的 electric wire 电线 electrical adj. 电气的 electrical engineering电气工程 electronic adj. 电子的 electronic equipment 51. embarrass v.使……尴尬 embarrassed adj. be embarrassed about对…感到尴尬 ---embarrassing adj.令人尴尬的,难为情的 ---embarrassment n. 52. employ v.雇佣 employer n. 雇主,老板 employee n. 雇工,雇员 employment n. 雇用,使用,职业 unemployment n. 失业 53. encourage v.鼓励 encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人做某事 discourage vt. 使……泄气 discourage sb from doing 劝阻某人不做某事 encouragement n. 鼓励 courage n.勇气 54. energy n.精力,能量 energetic adj.精力旺盛的 be full of energy=be energetic 55. enjoy vt. 欣赏,喜欢;享受……之乐趣 enjoy equality (freedom, peace) enjoy doing enjoyable adj.愉快的;有趣的 enjoyment n.享受;令人愉快的事物 Children like to share interests and enjoyments with their parents. 56.entertain v.招待,款待;使有兴趣;使快乐 entertainment n. 娱乐活动 entertaining adj. 有趣的,使人愉快的 57. environment n.环境 environmental adj. environmental protection/conservation / preservation 环境保护 environmentalist n.环境学家 58. equal adj.平等的 vt. 等于 be equal to等同;胜任 equally adv. treat sb equally equality n. the principle of equality before the law 法律面前人人平等的原则 59. equip vt.提供设备;装备 equipment (UC) n. a piece of equipment be equipped with Our office is equipped with modern equipment. 60 . escape n/vi 逃跑; 被忘掉 escape from being punished (punishment) a narrow escape 九死一生 an escaped prison 一名逃跑的犯人 61. Europe n.欧洲 European adj.欧洲的 n.欧洲人 a European 一名欧洲人 62.evident adj.明显的 evidence n.证据,迹象 The police haven’t found out the convincing evidence. 63. exam(examination) n.考试, 测验 -----examine v. 检查, 调查, 考试 With the approach of the college entrance examination, I study harder and harder. 64. excellent adj.卓越的, 极好的 -----excellence n.优秀, 卓越, 优点, 美德 65. exhibit vt. 展览; n.展品 Visitors are requested not to touch exhibits in the museum. exhibition n.展览,展览会There will be an exhibition on next week in the science museum. 65.exist vi.存在 existence n.生存,存在 come into existence 开始存在 existing adj 现存的,现行的 existing laws现行法律 Does life exist on other planets? 66. expect vt.预料,盼望;认为 expect sb to do I’m expecting your early reply. Don’t expect too much from your child. 不要对你的孩子期望太高。 expectation n.期望,预期 live up to your parents’ expectation不辜负父母的期望 have high expectation on sb.对某人有很高的期望 67.expense n.消费,支出 以……为代价 spare no expense to do不惜代价 at his own expense自费. at the expense of sb/sth 在牺牲……情况下,做某事 cut down one’s expense 减少开支 expensive / costly/dear adj.昂贵的 68.explain vt.解释 explanation n. 解释,说明 explain to sb. 向某人解释 He explained to me the reason why he was late again. 69.explode v.使爆炸 explosion n. explosive adj. 爆炸的;易爆炸的 70. expose vt.揭露;使面临(危险)be exposed to 暴露于;接触;遭受 Being exposed to the sunlight for a long time is harmful to your skin. ----exposure n. 71. express v. 表达;表示 I can’t express myself in English. expression n.表情,表达,词句--facial expression expressive adj. 富于表情的;有表现力的 72.extend vt延长,扩大,扩展 extend the deadline ---I’m sure you’ll join me in extending a very warm welcome to our visitors.我肯定你们会和我们一起向来访者表示热烈的欢迎。 73.face n.脸 vt.面对,面向 ---facial adj.-----面部的 facial expression 面部表情 Faced with the disaster, we Chinese have showed extraordinary courage and energy. 74. fail v. 失败;不及格;衰退 failure n. He failed the exam/in the exam/failed to pass the exam. Failure is the mother of success. Weight-loss pills caused his liver to failure. 75. familiar adj. 熟悉的 familiarity n. 熟悉,通晓be familiar to sb sb. be familiar with sth 76. famous /well known/famed adj.著名的 be world famous for…/as… fame n.名声 rise to fame overnight 一夜成名 77.finance 财政,金融 financial adj. the financial worries 经济担忧 1. flee v. 逃避, 逃跑, 逃走 ---fled---fled 2. flexible adj.易曲的, 灵活的,能变形的 ----flexibility n.弹性, 适应性, 机动性 3. flight n.飞行;飞机的航程; 班机; 楼梯的一段 ----fly v. (flew, flown) n.苍蝇 4. flow n.流程, 流动, vi.流动, 涌流( flowed, flowed) 5. fluency n.流利, 流畅, 雄辩---fluent adj. fluently adv. 6. fog n. 雾, 烟雾, 尘雾 vi.被雾笼罩, 变模糊 vt.使困惑, 以雾笼罩 ---foggy adj.雾深的, 模糊的, 朦胧的 7. fool n. 愚人, 白痴, 莽汉, vt. 愚弄, 欺骗 ---foolish adj. 8. foresee vt.预见, 预知 (foresaw, foreseen) 9. forget vt.忘记, 忽略(forgot, forgot/forgotten) ----forgetful adj.健忘的, 易忘的 10. fortune n.财富, 运气, 好运, 命运---fortunate adj. ----fortunately adv. unfortunately adv. 12. found v. 建立, 创立, 创办----- (founded, founded) 13. free adj.自由的, 免费的, 空闲的-----freedom n. ----freely adv. 14. freeze v.(使)结冰, (使)冷冻, 冻结---(froze, frozen) ---freezing adj.冰冻的, 严寒的 15. frequent adj. 时常发生的, 频繁的 ---frequency n.频率, 周率, 发生次数---frequently adv. 16. friend n. ------friendly adj.友好的, 友谊的 ---friendship n.友谊, 友好 17. fun n. 娱乐, 玩笑, 嬉笑, 有趣的人或事物 adj.有趣的,愉快的 ---funny adj.有趣的, 好笑的, 滑稽的, 奇异的, 古怪的 18. general adj.一般的, 普通的, 综合的, 概括的, 全面的, 大体的 ----generally adv. 19. glory n.荣誉, 光荣---glorious adj.光荣的, 显赫的 20. gold n.黄金, 金币 adj.金的, 金制的 a gold medal ----golden adj.金色的, 金黄色的 21. govern v. 统治, 支配, 管理 ----governor n.统治者, 管理者 ---government n.政府 22. gradual adj.逐渐的, 逐步的 ----gradually adv. 23. graduate n.(大学)毕业生, 研究生 v.(使)(大学)毕业 graduate from… ----graduation n. 24. grateful adj.感激的, 感谢的 ----gratitude n.感谢;感恩 (不可数) 25. greedy adj.贪吃的, 贪婪的, 渴望的----be greedy for sth ----greed n. 贪欲, 贪婪 26. greet vt.问候, 向...致意----greeting n. 问候;致意 ---to offer greetings to sb. 向某人致意 27. grow vi.生长, 成长, 渐渐变得, 增长, 增高 vt. 种植-----(grew, grown)-----growth n. 28. guide n .领路人, 导游者vt. 指导, 支配, 管理, 带领 -----guidance n.指导, 领导 ---under the guidance of sb 在某人的指导之下 29. happy adj.快乐的, 幸福的-----happiness n. -----happily adv. 30. hard adj.硬的, 坚固的adv.努力地, 辛苦地 -----hardship n. 困苦, 艰难, 辛苦 31. harm vt.伤害, 损害 n.伤害, 损害-----harmful adj. (be harmful to) 32. harmony n. 和谐,协调, 融洽 live in harmony with与…和谐共处 ----harmonious adj. 和谐的, 协调的, 和睦的 33. hate vt.憎恨, 恨, 不愿, 不喜欢 n.憎恶, 憎恨-------hateful adj.可恨的, 讨厌的, 可恶的 34. health n. 健康,卫生-----(in good health)-----healthy adj. 35. high adj.高的 -----height n. 高度----highly adv. 高度地 36. help n.帮忙 vt.帮助, 助长------helpful adj. ---helpfully adv. ---helpless adj.无助的, 无能的, 没用的 37. hesitate v.犹豫, 踌躇, 不愿----hesitation n.犹豫, 踌躇 ---without hesitation毫不犹豫 38. hide vt.隐藏, 掩藏, 隐瞒, 掩饰-----(hid---hidden) 39. hire vt. 租用,租; 雇用,雇 (hired, hiring) hire out 出租 -----rent (v.)租, 租借, 出租 n.租金Why don't you hire out your spare room to other people, and earn some money? 你为什么不把空闲的房间租给别人来赚些钱? 40. hit n.打击, 打, 碰撞; vt.打, 打击, 碰撞, 击中, 袭击 (hit, hit) ----strike v. 41. honest adj.诚实的, 正直的----honesty n.诚实, 正直 ----dishonest adj.不诚实的 42. hope n.希望, 信心v.希望, 盼望 (hoped, hoping) ----hopeful adj.怀有希望的, 有希望的 hopeless adj.没有希望的, 绝望的, 不可救药 ---with the hope of怀着…希望 43. horrible adj.可怕的, 恐怖的, 讨厌的----horror n. -----horribly adv.可怕地, 非常地 44. humorous adj.富幽默感的, 滑稽的, 诙谐的 ----humor n. 幽默, 心情, 诙谐 ---humorously adv. 45. hunger n.饥饿, 欲望, 渴望 v.饥饿----hungry adj. -----a hunger for kindness 渴望得到恩惠(hunger 作名词) ------hunger for friends 极想有朋友(hunger作动词) 46. hunt (hunt, hunt) v.打猎, 搜寻 n.打猎, 搜寻 47. identity n. 身份,特性----identification n. 身份证明,识别 ----identify vt.识别, 鉴别, 把... 和...看成一样 48. imagine vt.想象, 设想----imagination n.想象, 空想, 想象的事物, 想象力 ----imaginative adj.想象的, 虚构的 49. impossible adj.不可能的 ---possible adj.可能的 ----possibility n.可能性, 可能发生的事物 50. impress vt. 印, 盖印, 留下印象----impression n. 印象, 感想-----make an impression on sb impressive adj. 给人印象深刻的,感人的;引人注目的 51. improve v.改善, 改进-----improvement n. 改进, 进步 ----make an improvement改进 52. independent adj.独立自主的, 不受约束的-----independence n.独立, 自主 ----dependent adj. 依靠的, 依赖的----dependence n.依靠, 依赖, 信任, 信赖 53. injure vt.损害, 伤害-----injury n.伤害, 侮辱 injured adj. 受伤的;受损害的 54. innocent adj.清白的, 无罪的, 天真的, 无知的 -----innocence n.清白 55. inspect vt.检查, 视察----inspection n.检查, 视察 56. insure vt.给...保险----insurance n.保险, 保险单, 保险业, 保险费 57. intelligence n.智力, 聪明, 智能-----intelligent adj.聪明的, 伶俐的, 有才智的 58. invent vt.发明, 创造----invention n. inventor n. 59. invite vt.邀请, 引起----invitation n. -----accept [decline] an invitation 接受[拒绝]邀请 at the invitation of sb. 应某人邀请 60. judge n.法官, 审判员, 裁判员 vt.审理, 鉴定, 判断----judgment n.审判, 判决, 判断力 61. just adj.正义的, 公正的------justice n.正义, 正当, 公平 (adv. 正好, 仅仅, 刚才) 62. kind n.种类, 性质adj.仁慈的, 和蔼的, 亲切的, 友爱的 -----kindness-----kindly adv.温和地, 亲切地 last adj 最后的 反义词first(无比较级和最高级)the last man to arrive; 刚过去的 in the last few years; 最不可能的 He is the last man to tell a lie. ----lastly 最后(一点 )lasting adj 持久的,永恒的 a lasting interest in art 2. late (a.) 迟的,晚的 反义词 early ----be late for school 靠后一点的 in one’s late fifties 2 days later (单独使用)后来,以后 sooner or later 迟早 ----最高级latest: 最晚, 最新的,最近的 the latest news from the front -----lately adv: 近来,最近 laugh v. 笑,大笑----n.笑声 have a good laugh over sth 对……大笑了一番 ----n. laughter burst into laughter 爆发出笑声 4. law n. 法律;规律 obey/break the law 定律 ----lawyer n. 律师 lawful adj =legal 合法的,法定的 ----illegal adj.不合法的 5. lay-laid-laid 摆;搁;放 lay the table;lay down 6. lazy adj. 懒的,偷懒的;令人懒洋洋的----a lazy afternoon; 缓慢的----a lazy river ----lazily adv. ----laziness n. U 7. lie―lay―lain v. 平躺,卧;位于;躺下;在于; lie-lied-lied说谎 n 谎言,假话――tell a lie lay-laid-laid 放置,下蛋 8. light n. 光;光线;日光,白昼 in (the) light of按照,根据,考虑到 throw light on阐明, lighten vt. 减轻负担;使愉快;照亮,弄亮;使明亮 9. likely adj 很可能的,可期待的 It is likely that she’ll win the match. sb. be likely to do某人很可能会做…. adv.或许, 很可能(多用于most, very 之后) 10. live adj. 活的 a live animal; 生动的, 精力充沛的, 实况转播的, 点燃的 lively adj.活泼的, 活跃的, 栩栩如生的, 真实的 living adj.活的, 逼真的, 现存的 11. long adj. 长的, 长期的 --vi.渴望, 热望long for…/ long to do ---adv.长期地, 始终 length n.长度, 长, 时间的长短 ----lengthen v.延长, (使)变长 ----lengthened adj. 加长的 12. luck n.运气,命运;好运;幸运; 吉祥物 lucky adj幸运的,好运的---- luckily adv. 幸运地;幸好----unluckily 不幸地;倒霉地 13. magic n.[U]魔法,巫术;魔术,戏法;神奇的力量,魔力,魅力 adj.巫术的;魔术的;有魔力的,不可思议的 ---magician n. 魔术师,变戏法的人;术士,巫师 14. major n.<美>主修课; adj.主修的, 主要的 major in… vi.主修… ----majority n.多数, 大半 15. manage vi.处理, 应付过去----manager n.经理, 管理人员, 管理器----management n.经营, 管理, 处理, 操纵 23. marry vt娶, 嫁, 和...结婚 ――marriage n.结婚,婚姻 married adj.已婚的, 婚姻的 a newly married couple一对新婚夫妇 24. mean adj.低劣的, 卑鄙的, , 吝啬的 ---be meant to do应做;照道理,照规矩应该做;注定要 You don't mean to say so! 你不是这个意思吧! 真的吗? mean much [a great deal] to sb. 对某人很重要; 对某人很可贵 meaning n. 意义, 含意, 意图----meaningful adj.意味深长的----meaningless adj无意义的 25. medical adj.医学的, 内科的, (医)药的――medical care---medicine n药, 医学, 内科学 26. memory n.记忆, 记忆力, 回忆, 存储(器),内存――in memory of纪念… -----memorize vt. 27. mistake n.错误, 过失v弄错, 误解, 把...误认为----mistaken adj.犯错的, 错误的 28. mobile adj.可移动的, 易变的, 机动的 --mobile library 流动图书馆 mobile phone 手提电话,手机-----mobility n活动性, 灵活性, 迁移率, 机动性 29.motivation n. 动机 motivate vt激发 motivated adj 有根据的, 有动机的,由...推动的 30. move .v移动, 搬家--movement n 运动, 动作 ----moving / moved adj 31. music n 音乐, 乐曲――musical adj音乐的, 悦耳的;n.音乐喜剧――musician n 音乐家 32.nature n.自然, 自然界, 大自然, 自然状态, 本性, 天性 in nature 性质上; 实际上, 事实上----natural adj.自然的, 自然界的; 天生的, 天赋的 --naturally adv自然地;天生地;不用人工地 33. necessary a.必要的, 必需的, 必然 unnecessary adj. ----necessarily adv.必要地----necessity n.必要性, 需要,必需品 37. negotiate v. (与某人)商议, 谈判, 磋商, ,买卖, 通过 --negotiation n.[常用复]谈判, 磋商;准备, 安排 --carry on negotiation with sb. 与某人进行谈判 38. occupy vt.占, 占用, 占领, 占据----be occupied in 正在(做某事) occupy oneself with 从事于..., 忙于..., 专心于... ---occupy oneself in 从事于..., 忙于..., 专心于 -----occupation n.职业, 占有, 占有(房屋等) 40. own adj.自己的, 特有的, ---on one’s own.独自 -----vt拥有, 自认, 承认 ---owner n.所有者, 业主----ownership n.所有权, 物主身份 1. paint(油漆) n./v.---painter./ n..---painting n. 2. participate(参加) v.----participation n. 3. particular(尤其) adj.---particularly adv. be particular about 对..很挑剔 4. patience(耐心)n. ---patient n/adj. —patiently /adv 5. peace (和平)/n.---peaceful /adj. 6. perform(表演)v. ---performer n. ---performance n 7. permit(允许)v. ---permit n.许可,许可证 ---permission n.---permitting 8. person个人)n. --- personal adj. ----personally adv ---personality个性,人品 9 .persuade(说服) v ----persuasive adj 10. phenomenon (现象)----phenomena(复数) 11. physics n.物理 ---physicist n.物理学家 ---physician n.医生 ---physical 自然(界)的;身体的;物质的;自然规律的 12. pleasant(高兴的)adj. ---please vt.& vi. 使高兴;使满意;讨人喜欢 ----pleased adj ---pleasing adj ---pleasure n. 13. poison(毒品) n. ----poisonous adj. 14. politics(政治)n ----political adj ---politician n. 政治家;政客 15. pollute(污染) v. ---pollution n. 16. possess(拥有) v. ----possession n. 17. possible (可能的)adj ----possibly adv ----possibility n. 18. practice(实践)n. -----practice v. ----practical adj 19.prefer (更喜欢) v. ------preference n. 20. present(礼物/出席) n./v. ----presentation n. 陈述;报告;介绍;赠送 21. probable(可能的) adj ----probably adj 22. pronounce(发音) v. ----pronunciation n. 23. protect(保护) v ---protection n. 24. punish (惩罚) v----punishment n. 25.real(真正的) adj ---really adv ---reality n. 现实,现实性;真实情况 26. receive (接收)v. ----receiver n.接受者,收款员;接收器 ---reception n.接待;欢迎;招待会 at the reception desk/counter在接待处 ---receptionist n.接待员 27.regular (有规律的)adj ---regularly adv. ---regulation n. 管理;规章;规则 (regulations) 28.relate(相关) v. —relation n. ---relationship n. 31.rely(信赖) v.---reliable adj 32.refer(参考) v. ----reference n. 33. religion (宗教) n. ---religious adj 34. require (需求) v. ------requirement n. 35. reserve v. 储备;保留;预约 n.保存,储备,储存 -----reservation n. make a reservaton (for…)预订(房间、桌子、航班 …) 36 retire (退休) v---retirement n. 36 resist(抵制) v ----resistance n. 37. respond (回应/响应)v. ----responsible adj(责任) ---responsibility n. 38.review(复习/修订) v. ----revision n. 39 revolute (革命)/v ---revolution /n 1.rule n.& v.法规,规则,常规,统治; break one’s rule破例; make it a rule to do sth.养成做某事的习惯 ruler n. 尺,统治者 2. run --ran --run running; running water自来水; run across偶然遇到;run into撞(车),偶然遇到;run out(of)用完,耗尽 3. rush v.& n急忙,冲促,催促,冲 rush hour(上下班)交通拥挤时刻;rush for 冲向 rush sb/sth to 使某人急速去 4. sad adj. sadly adv. sadness n; 同义词unhappy, upset; 反义词happy 5. safe adj 安全 safely adv. safety n. safe n.保险箱,保险柜 secure adj. security n. 6. sale n.卖,出卖;销售额,销售 sell vt ; for sale待售; on sale出售上市,廉价出售 salesman (pl.) salesmen saleswoman, (pl.) saleswomen 7. salt n. salty adj adj.含盐的;咸的;辛辣的 8. sand [U]沙(子) (pl) sands沙滩 9. satisfy vt.使满意 satisfactory adj 令人满意的 satisfied(感到)满意的 adj. satisfying adj令人满意的 satisfaction n 满意; be satisfied with…,对…感到满意 far from satisfactory远远不能令人满意;satisfy(meet) sb’s demand满足某人的要求 10. save vt. 救,节省,储存; savings储蓄金,存款 11. scholar n. 学者 scholarship n.奖学金 12. science n. scientific adj. scientist n. 13. seat n.& v.座位,使坐下; seated adj. Be seated.请坐下。 14. second n.第二,秒; second only to仅次于 15. secretary n秘书,书记 general secretary 总书记 secretary general 秘书长 secret n.秘密 discover a secret发现秘密; keep a secret保守秘密; let out the secret泄露秘密; 16. self–selves—selfish---unselfish无私的—unselfishness--selfless无私的 self-confident自信的 17. sense n. 感官,官能,感觉,意义 sensitive敏感的 sense of sight(touch, smell, hearing, taste) a sense of duty (sth. )make sense 讲得通,有意义 sb. make sense of sth. 弄懂 18. separate vt..使分开;a.单独的,分开的 separate…from 把…和…分开 19. serve vt. 招待,服务 ;serve as 充当,担任;Serve the people heart and soul.全心全意为人民服务; service n. 效劳,服务,服伺,招待;at sb’s service 听候某人吩咐 settle vi. 安顿,定居,解决;settlement n. settler n.移居者 settle in 安顿下来 20. shake v. --shook, ---shaken 21. shame n. 羞愧,耻辱 shameful adj.可耻的 22. share n.一份;股票(=stock)buy shares 买股票; share markets股票市场; share vt.共享,共用 share a room(an umbrella)合用一间房(一把雨伞) 24. sheep (pl. sheep) 25 sight n.视力,视觉 in sight 看得见, out of sight看不见; catch sight of 瞥见; sightseeing n. 观光,游览 go sightseeing去观光 ---nearsighted adj.近视的 26.silent adj无声的a silent film; keep silent沉默不语,不吭声silence n.寂静in silence 默不做声 27.simple adj.简单的;simplify v使简单化 28. sink vi (sank, sunk)下沉 29. skill n. 技能,技巧; skillful adj熟练的 30. sleep n.vi. slept, slept; have a good(sound) sleep睡的很熟;go to bed去睡觉; go to sleep就寝,入睡;feel sleepyg感到眼困;打瞌睡 31. snow n. snowy adj下雪的 32. sorrow n. 悲痛,悲伤 The whole nation was in deep sorrow at the bad news. 33.south n. southern adj. southeast, southwest 34. speak,---spoke--- spoken;- --speaker, ---speech n. --make a speech发表演说 35.spend –spent--- spent 36. starve vi ---starvation n.饿死 37. statue n. 雕塑;status n. 身份,地位 38. steel n.钢 ;--steal vt. 偷 –stole; stolen 39. steep adj.陡峭的; step 台阶,跨步; step by step 逐步的; take steps采取步骤/措施 40. stomach n胃,肚子 (pl. stomachs ) on one’s stomach俯卧 41. strength n. 力气,力量;strengthen vt加强,增强 strong adj.强壮的,坚固的 42. succeed v. ---success n. ---successful adj. ---successfully adv. a great success圆满成功;Wish you success; 祝您成功! May you succeed.祝您成功! 43. sudden adj. 突然 all of a sudden; suddenly 44. suggest v.建议 ---suggestion n. suggested answer参考答案 45. suffer vi. 受痛苦,忍受,容忍 --- suffering----suffer from 46. summarize vt.总结,概述 summary n. 47. survival n.幸存,;survive vt./vi生存;幸存 ---survivor n. 幸存者 48. surround vt.围绕,包围; surrounding adj 周围的;surroundings n. 周围的环境 49. taste v. 品尝,尝起来 tasty adj.可口的= delicious 50. tear n.眼泪 v撕,扯 in tears 眼泪汪汪 be tearful adj.含泪的 PAGE 1

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  • ID:4-6784951 2020高考英语大二轮复习冲刺经典专题语法部分专题二短文改错课件教学案(打包6套)

    高中英语/高考专区/二轮专题/各类题型专题/短文改错

    专题二 短文改错 策略综述 1.细读全文,了解全篇 首先要细读全文,弄懂全篇的主旨,背景和素材。记住必须做到一句一句地读,在读的过程中可以把初步确定的错误标出来。 2.分句阅读,逐句纠错 在此过程中,考生一定要细心,要根据上表中的考点方向去发现错误,可以先易后难。 3.重读文章,仔细推敲 最后要将改正后的短文再仔细阅读一遍,看词法、句法及行文逻辑是否合理恰当,如有不适及时纠正。 真题导练 A (2019·全国卷Ⅱ)Since I was a kid, I've considered different job I would like to do. First, I wanted to be a fireman, whose uniform looked so coolly. Then, when I was in the five grade, I wanted to be a teacher because I liked my English teacher too much. When I studied chemistry high school, I reconsidered my goal or decided to be a doctor. They were two reasons for the decision. One was that I was amazing at the fact that a sick person could feel much more better after seeing a doctor. And the other is that I wanted to help people in need.  1.形容词different后跟名词的复数形式。故应将job改成jobs。 2.系动词look后跟形容词作表语。故应将coolly改成cool。 3.“上五年级”有两种表达方式:in the fifth grade或in Grade Five。故应将five改成fifth。 4.此处表示“我非常喜欢我的英语老师”。too much表示“太多”,而very/so much表示“非常”,故应将too改成very/so。 5.“在高中”的表达应为in/at high school。故应在high前加in/at。 6.reconsidered和decided这两个动作是递进关系,故应将or改为and。 7.此处是There_be固定句型。故应将They改为There。 8.-ed形容词说明人的感受,意为“感到……的”,-ing形容词描述人或事物本身具有的特征,意为“令人……的”,此处说明主语I的感受,故应将amazing改为amazed。 9.本句中better本身已经是比较级,前面只需要much来修饰,表示程度,more在本句中为多余成分,故应将其去掉。 10.此处是叙述过去发生的事情,所以用一般过去时。故应将is改为was。 B (2018·全国卷Ⅰ)During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a change there. The first time I went there, they were living in a small house with dogs, ducks, and another animals. Last winter when I went here again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. They also had a small pond which they raised fish. My grandpa said last summer they earned quite a lot by sell the fish. I felt happily that their life had improved. At the end of our trip, I told my father that I planned to return for every two years, but he agreed.  1.此处特指去的是乡下,故应在countryside前加the。 2.根据第一句中的“During my last winter holiday”可知,时态应用一般过去时。故应将find改成found。 3.根据句意“他们住在一个小房子里,院子里有狗、鸭子和其他牲畜。”可知,应将another改成other。 4.根据句意“去年冬天,我又一次去了那里。”可知,应将here改成there。 5.根据前文的“dozens of”可知,其后用名词复数形式。故应将chicken改为chickens。 6.此处a_small_pond是先行词,且关系词在后面的定语从句中作地点状语成分,故应用in_which或where来引导从句。 7.介词by后应用动名词形式,故将sell改为selling。 8.系动词feel后应用形容词作表语,故将happily改成happy。 9.时间名词有every, each, last等词修饰时,其前不用介词。故应去掉for。 10.根据语意“我计划每两年回来一次,他同意了。”可知,此处是并列关系,故应将but改成and。 C (2017·全国卷Ⅲ)When I look at this picture of myself, I realize of how fast time flies. I had grown not only physically, and also mentally in the past few years. About one month after this photo was took, I entered my second year of high school and become a new member of the school music club. Around me in picture are the things they were very important in my life at that time:car magazines and musical instruments. I enjoyed studying difference kinds of cars and planes, playing pop music, and collecting the late music albums. This picture often brings back to me many happy memories of your high school days.     1.realize是及物动词,故应去掉of。 2.由时间状语“in the past few years”可知,此处强调的是发生在过去的动作对现在的影响,因此应用现在完成时。故将had改为have。 3.not only ... but_also ... “不但……而且……”,为固定搭配。故将and改为but。 4.photo与take之间为被动关系,故应用被动语态。故将took改为taken。 5.“我”进入高中第二学年并成为学校音乐俱乐部的新成员这一系列动作发生在过去,所以应将become改为became。 6.上文已提到过这张照片,因此要用the表特指,或者用this。故在picture前加这个词。 7.things后为定语从句,修饰先行词things,且关系词在从句中作主语成分,所以应用关系代词来引导从句。故将they改为that/which。 8.名词kinds前需要形容词来修饰,故应将difference改为different。 9.此处表示收集“最新”的音乐专辑,故将late改为latest。 10.全文以第一人称介绍了作者的故事,故应将your改为my。 第1讲 词法类 词法类错误在短文改错中所占比例很大,我们建议考生在解题流程的第1、2步中去解决此类问题,对于此类错误,考生要学会分析句子成分,注意平时积累,强化语言基础。 考点 动词类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ)All the football players on the playground cheered loudly, say that I had a talent for football. 答案 say→saying 2.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)Now my dream is to open a cafe. Though it may appear simple, it required a lot of ideas and efforts. 答案 required→requires 3.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ)As a kid, I loved to watch cartoon, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not to let me. 答案 watching→watch; 去掉let前的to 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)I thought I had learned the instructor's orders, but once I started the car, my mind goes blank. 答案 goes→went 5.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)We can chose between staying at home and taking a trip. 答案 chose→choose   1.辨清非谓语动词与谓语动词 句中已有谓语动词,且另一动词不作并列谓语,则只能用非谓语动词。 2.识别时态不一致 文章前后是现在时但却用了过去时,或前后都是过去时却用了现在时,导致时态不一致。 在平行或并列结构中,动词的形式通常是一致的。关键的问题是看and, or等后的动词与前面的哪个动词并列,一定要理解,辨别清楚。 3.留心语态错误 (1)构成被动语态的过去分词写成了过去式或现在分词。 (2)主动语态中却多了be以及be的变形,变成了被动语态。 4.注意主谓不一致情况 主语是单数形式,谓语却采取复数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语却采取单数形式,导致主谓不一致的情况。 5.牢记情态动词用法 (1)情态动词后一定要接动词原形,但却用了过去式或其他形式。 (2)情态动词相互间的误用。 6.对于非谓语动词 (1)理清to的两种命题方式 ①多余:感官动词和使役动词(get除外)后面跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。 ②缺失:有些动词,如want, decide, plan等后应接带to的不定式作宾语。 (2)搞清动词-ing形式与动词-ed形式的区别 动词-ing形式表主动、进行;动词-ed形式表被动、完成;动词-ing形式转化的形容词表示“令人……的”,常修饰物;而动词-ed形式转化的形容词表示“感到……的”,常修饰人。 考点 名词类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)I wish to have a chain of cafes in many different city. 答案 city→cities 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ)When I was little, Friday's night was our family game night. 答案 Friday's→Friday 3.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)Besides, they often get some useful informations from the Internet. 答案 informations→information 4.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)My uncle tells me that the key to his success is honest. 答案 honest→honesty   (1)熟知单复数使用情况:①单数概念和不可数名词用单数;②表示复数意义的可数名词用复数。 (2)牢记常见的不可数名词。 (3)三类词后常用名词:①冠词后;②介词后;③形容词性物主代词后。 考点 形容词和副词类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ)I stopped the ball and kicked it hardly back to the playground. 答案 hardly→hard 2.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)What I want is not just an ordinarily cafe but a very special one. 答案 ordinarily→ordinary 3.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)Immediate, I raised my hand. 答案 Immediate→Immediately 4.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)They were also the best and worse years in my life. 答案 worse→worst   1.明辨词性误用 副词修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,在句中作状语。 2.理清比较级、最高级的误用 (1)原级和比较级混用。 (2)比较级和最高级混用。 (3)在本身已是比较级形式的基础上误加more。 (4)在没有最高级的词前误加most。 3.关注形近词误用 hard意为“刻苦地、猛烈地”,而hardly意为“几乎不、几乎没有”;beside意为“在……旁边”,besides意为“另外”。 4.重点连接副词误用 however主要用于转折或对比,意思是“然而,可是,但是”;therefore主要表示结果,意思是“因此,所以”。 考点 冠词类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)Each of my cafes will have a different theme and an unique style. 答案 an→a 2.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)They live far from the school, and it takes them about a hour and a half to go to work every day. 答案 第一个a→an/one 3.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)My uncle says that he never dreams of becoming rich in the short period of time. 答案 the→a  (1)a和an,表达数量,或者泛指任何一个。a用于辅音音素(不是辅音字母)开头的词前,an用于元音音素(不是元音字母)开头的词前。 (2)若对于某个名词有明指或暗示的情况,前面要加the。 (3)若某名词是复数、专有名词、或抽象名词、物质名词(没有固定性状),前面不适合加冠词,应把该位置空下来,形成“零冠词”。 (4)固定搭配中的冠词需要牢记。 考点 介词类错误 1.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ)Still I was unwilling to play the games for them sometimes. 答案 for→with 2.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)It was a relief and I came to a sudden stop just in the middle on the road. 答案 on→of 3.(2019·河南汝州市实验中学高三检测)They said it was difficult of them to judge because how the accident happened was not clear. 答案 of→for   (1)注意介词多余,关注介词遗漏:①及物动词后直接跟宾语无需加介词,不及物动词后需加介词再加宾语;②this/that/these/those/last/next/every等词构成的时间短语,前面不用介词;③作定语的不定式中的动词如果为不及物动词,或不定式修饰的名词和代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后要有相应的介词。 (2)牢记习惯用法,区别相似介词:固定搭配或习惯用法以及相似介词的区别常是介词考查的设题点,这需要平时做题中多多积累。 考点 数词类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅱ)Then, when I was in the five grade, I wanted to be a teacher because I liked my English teacher ... 答案 five→fifth 2.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)In the summer holiday following my eighteen birthday, I took driving lessons. 答案 eighteen→eighteenth    1.识别序数词与基数词的混用和错用 “只描述数量多少的”用基数词;“强调顺序性,作第几”讲的时候用序数词。 2.注意年龄、年代的表达法 表达“在某人几十岁时”用“in one's+逢十的基数词复数”;表达“在几十年代”时,用“in the+逢十的基数词复数”。 过关检测(限时:20分钟) (2019·广西钦州市高三第三次质检)Today I was going home by bike where a little dog ran to me. I stopped in time avoid hitting the dog. Luckily, it was not injuring, but lay on the ground. I came nearer and touched its side gently. It jumped to its foot quickly and stared at me friendly. Seeing nothing seriously, I was about to leave, but the dog stops me by biting my trousers. So I wanted to adopt to the dog but it was unfair to its master, just then, the woman came, saying the dog was her and that I could take it away as she had some many dogs at home. Thus I got a lovely pet. 答案: Today I was going home by bike a little dog ran to me. I stopped in time avoid hitting the dog. Luckily, it was not , but lay on the ground. I came nearer and touched its side gently. It jumped to its quickly and stared at me friendly. Seeing nothing , I was about to leave, but the dog me by biting my trousers. So I wanted to adopt eq \o(,\s\do15(⑦)) the dog but it was unfair to its master, just then, woman came, saying the dog was and that I could take it away as she had some dogs at home. Thus I got a lovely pet. (2019·湖北七市高三联考)I have met many teachers since I begin my schooling. Of all my teachers, Mrs Green is the one who impresses me most. Though she is 50, she looks very young at her age. Comparing with other teachers, Mrs Green pays more attention to her way of teaching. She tries various ways to make her class lively and interestingly. In her opinion, we will not only know “what” but also understand “why”. So instead of giving us answer immediately, she encourages us to think carefully every time when she puts forward questions. With her help, we have learned how to analyze and settled problems. What the amazing world of “why” she leads us! She is such a learned person that we all admire him very much. 答案: I have met many teachers since I my schooling. Of all my teachers, Mrs Green is the one who impresses me most. Though she is 50, she looks very young her age. with other teachers, Mrs Green pays more attention to her way of teaching. She tries various ways to make her class lively and . In her opinion, we will not only know “what” but also understand “why”. So instead of giving us immediately, she encourages us to think carefully every time eq \o(,\s\do15(⑥)) she puts forward questions. With her help, we have learned how to analyze and problems. What amazing world of “why” she leads us ! She is such a learned person that we all admire very much. 强化特训2 短文改错(一)(限时:30分钟) [1] (2019·辽宁大连一模)I was often troubled by lack of confidences. So I applied for a job at an exhibition as reporter last term. The exhibition was held annual to display the latest products in the field of education. At that time, I was responsible for interview parents who bought the learning tools. While talking with him, I found it was not so hard as I think. One lady even praised me but asked her son to learn from me. I realized the experience was in great value and nothing was more excited than communicating with people. From this experience, I am fully aware that we should take real action if our personality that needs improving. 答案: I was often troubled by lack of . So I applied for a job at an exhibition as reporter last term. The exhibition was held to display the latest products in the field of education. At that time, I was responsible for parents who bought the learning tools. While talking with , I found it was not so hard as I . One lady even praised me asked her son to learn from me. I realized the experience was great value and nothing was more than communicating with people. From this experience, I am fully aware that we should take real action if our personality eq \o(,\s\do15(⑩)) needs improving. [2] (2019·山东师范大学附中第5次模拟)The sun was just slowly come up over the mountains today as I took my dogs for its morning walk. I smiled as I watched the clouds gradually turn to white and gold. The air was cool and I wore a big smile in my face. Even though there weren't leaf on the trees, but I could still hear birds singing songs of spring. Even my dogs seemed to notice the different in the air. They were playing instead of just do their morning business in the grass. The particular golden sun seemed to make it a beautiful day. As I headed back, I realize something. The beauty of day didn't come from the warmth of the sun. It came from the warmth within my own heart and soul. 答案: The sun was just slowly up over the mountains today as I took my dogs for morning walk. I smiled as I watched the clouds gradually turn to white and gold. The air was cool and I wore a big smile my face. Even though there weren't on the trees, eq \o(,\s\do15(⑤))/ I could still hear birds singing songs of spring. Even my dogs seemed to notice the in the air. They were playing instead of just their morning business in the grass. The golden sun seemed to make it a beautiful day. As I headed back, I something. The beauty of day didn't come from the warmth of the sun. It came from the warmth within my own heart and soul. [3] (2019·全国名校联盟第二次模拟)My husband and I were having a walk the other night. Suddenly, I noticed lots of garbage lying on all sides of the road. So I went home in a hurry, thought cleaning up a garbage could make a difference to the neighborhood. The moment when I got home, I took out a pair of glove and a large garbage bag. Then I came back but picked up the cans, bottles, paper boxes on the road. Final, I carefully sorted them out. My husband warned, “Stopping it! Other people will look down you.” But I didn't care. Sometimes we just had to do what is right in our heart. 答案: My husband and I were having a walk the other night. Suddenly, I noticed lots of garbage lying on sides of the road. So I went home in a hurry, cleaning up garbage could make a difference to the neighborhood. The moment eq \o(,\s\do15(④)) I got home, I took out a pair of and a large garbage bag. Then I came back picked up the cans, bottles, paper boxes on the road. , I carefully sorted them out. My husband warned, “ it! Other people will look down you.” But I didn't care. Sometimes we just to do what is right in our heart. [4] (2019·安徽舒城中学仿真试题)When I intended to tell my four-year-old niece Lisa the story Snow White write by the Grimm Brothers, my elder sister stopped me immediate and gave me another storybook. When I asked if she has told Lisa the story, she shook her head and said, “I don't think girl today should listen to this story.” I was confusing. Later, my sister explained how. In this story, Snow White does nothing to rescue herself. Instead of, she depends on others' help. My sister doesn't want her daughter to learn just to turn to others help. She wants her to learn to be brave and independence. That's why my sister doesn't want to tell herself such stories as Snow White. 答案: When I intended to tell my four-year-old niece Lisa the story Snow White by the Grimm Brothers, my elder sister stopped me and gave me another storybook. When I asked if she told Lisa the story, she shook her head and said,“I don't think today should listen to this story.” I was . Later, my sister explained . In this story, Snow White does nothing to rescue herself. Instead eq \o(,\s\do15(⑦)), she depends on others' help. My sister doesn't want her daughter to learn just to turn to others help. She wants her to learn to be brave and . That's why my sister doesn't want to tell such stories as Snow White. PAGE - 1 - (共68张PPT) 专题二 短文改错 策略综述 真题导练 第1讲  词法类 过关检测 强化特训 本课结束 答案 解析 第2讲 句法类 句法类错误主要考查三大从句和特定句式,相对来说难度较大,我们建议在解题流程的第2、3步去解决,另外考生在平时练题中应多加分析句子、多积累固定句式,熟悉三大从句的用法及特点。 考点 固定句式或特定句型 1.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)I was so much nervous that I could hardly tell which direction was left. 答案 去掉much 2.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)I have grown not only physically, and also mentally in the past few years. 答案 and→but   对于固定或特定句式,最有效的途径就是多积累多记忆。例如,强调句式“it be ... that ...”,“祈使句+and/or+陈述句”句式,并列句式“not only ... but also ...,neither ... nor ...,either ... or ...”等,这些都是高考的常考点,考生必须熟记于心。 考点 主谓一致 1.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)The classroom is a place for learning and that include learning from textbooks, and mistakes as well. 答案 include→includes 2.(2016·浙江高考)He would ask who we was and pretend not to know us. 答案 was→were 3.Tom, as well as his children, are to visit Beijing this summer. 答案 are→is 4.I, who is your teacher, will do my best to help you. 答案 is→am   1.判断主谓语是关键 (1)可数名词单数或不可数名词作主语时谓语动词用单数。 (2)动词-ing形式、不定式或名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。 注意:名词性从句表示复数概念时,谓语动词应用复数。 (3)就近原则常见的有:either ... or ..., neither ... nor ..., not only ... but also ..., there be等。 (4)就远原则常见的有:with, along with, together with, as well as, but, except, besides, including, in addition to, rather than等。 (5)在倒装句中要找出句子的主语从而判断谓语动词的单复数。 (6)定语从句中的谓语动词要与定语从句所修饰的先行词保持一致。 2.附加成分是难点 对于分隔现象,可利用“减—减”原则:先从整体上把握主干,再去掉句子中的插入语、附加成分等分隔干扰部分,使结构简化。 考点 从句中关联词的误用 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ)One afternoon where I was in primary school, I was walking by the school playground. 答案 where→when 2.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)In the cafe, customers will enjoy themselves in the historical environment what is created for them. 答案 what→that/which 3.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ)The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life. 答案 where→when 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)In their spare time, they are interested in planting vegetables in their garden, that is on the rooftop of their house. 答案 that→which 5.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)My uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live. 答案 that→where 6.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)After looking at the toy for some time, he turned around and found where his parents were missing. 答案 去掉where或where→that  (1)对于定语从句要熟知:①只能用which的情况(非限制性定语从句和介词后);②关系代词和关系副词如何区分(看先行词在定语从句中所作成分,作状语时用关系副词,其他成分用关系代词)。 (2)对于状语从句或名词性从句可从语意或成分上去判断,另外名词性从句中要知道that和what的区别(that只起连接作用,不作成分;what既起连接作用又作成分,含义上等于“名词+that”)。 考点 句子结构的对等性、逻辑性等 (2017·全国卷Ⅰ)The instructor kept repeating the words, “Speed up!” “Slow down!” “Turning left!” 答案 Turning→Turn  引号中的直接引语为三个祈使句,是平行关系,注意到结构上的对等性,就可以成功找出错误所在。 过关检测(限时:20分钟) (2019·新余二模)I have a lovely white dog called Qiu Qiu. She is a nice “girl”, but sometime she makes me angry. One day, my grandmother was sewed a pair of trousers with a needle in the living room. Before a while, my grandmother went to the kitchen, left the trousers with the needle on the table. The needle had fell on the floor. Qiu Qiu saw the needle and begin to chew it. When my grandmother got back, she was frightening. Immediately she asked me to have a look. I held Qiu Qiu and managed to get the needle out her mouth. When all this was over, I held her tightly in my arm and said, “Poor little girl! You might have died!” However, the little dog just stared at me innocent. 答案: I have a lovely white dog called Qiu Qiu. She is a nice “girl”, but she makes me angry. One day, my grandmother was a pair of trousers with a needle in the living room. a while, my grandmother went to the kitchen, / the trousers with the needle on the table. The needle eq \o(,\s\do15(⑤)) fell on the floor. Qiu Qiu saw the needle and to chew it. When my grandmother got back, she was . Immediately she asked me to have a look. I held Qiu Qiu and managed to get the needle out her mouth. When all this was over, I held her tightly in my and said, “Poor little girl! You might have died!” However, the little dog just stared at me . (2019·兰州高考诊断考试)Now I'd like to share with you a strange experience I had a month before. It may sound funny, and it's true. After a day's hard work I went to bed early than usual. It was about two o'clock in the morning, and suddenly I woke up. I heard a noise. I got out of the bed and went slow downstairs. I listened carefully. I could heard two men speaking quietly. I believed two thieves had broken into my house and I was really frightened, so I went back to upstairs, and immediately phone the police from my bedroom. The police arrived quickly. They opened front door with a special key and went into the living room. You can imagine what embarrassed I was when they came upstairs and told me we had turned the television off for me and everything was all right. 答案: Now I'd like to share with you a strange experience I had a month . It may sound funny, it's true. After a day's hard work I went to bed than usual. It was about two o'clock in the morning, and suddenly I woke up. I heard a noise. I got out of the bed and went downstairs. I listened carefully. I could two men speaking quietly. I believed two thieves had broken into my house and I was really frightened, so I went back eq \o(,\s\do15(⑥)) upstairs, and immediately the police from my bedroom. The police arrived quickly. They opened front door with a special key and went into the living room. You can imagine embarrassed I was when they came upstairs and told me had turned the television off for me and everything was all right. 强化特训2 短文改错(二)(限时:30分钟) [1] (2019·菏泽二模)In our life, we often regret what we did and which we couldn't do. Actually, it doesn't benefit us at all. As for most of us, we missed many chance to earn more money, to get a high position and to realize our dreams. We often regret that we don't seize those opportunities, thus feel upset. Although we do know regretting the past is no benefit, but we still can't help doing it. To avoid the problem below, we need to pay more attention to what you are doing now, making us busier and having no time to recall the past. Moreover, we'd better set reasonably goals one by one. Only by doing so can we struggle for our future better. 答案: In our life, we often regret what we did and we couldn't do. Actually, it doesn't benefit us at all. As for most of us, we missed many to earn more money, to get a position and to realize our dreams. We often regret that we don't seize those opportunities, thus upset. Although we do know regretting the past is no benefit, eq \o(,\s\do15(⑦)) / we still can't help doing it. To avoid the problem , we need to pay more attention to what are doing now, making us busier and having no time to recall the past. Moreover, we'd better set goals one by one. Only by doing so can we struggle for our future better. [2] The other day, our school invite a famous artist to teach us what to draw bamboo in traditional Chinese style. When the artist entered into the classroom, he received warm welcome. Firstly, he showed them a great many skillful ways to draw bamboo. We surrounded him and watched him careful. Then we tried to do it by ourselves under his instruction. Finally, after failing several times I succeeded in drawing a picture of bamboo, that made me so happy. In this lesson, we were deeply impressing by the beauty of Chinese paintings and proud of be Chinese. We hope we can have more activity of this kind in the future! 答案: The other day, our school a famous artist to teach us to draw bamboo in traditional Chinese style. When the artist entered eq \o(,\s\do15(③)) the classroom, he received warm welcome. Firstly, he showed a great many skillful ways to draw bamboo. We surrounded him and watched him . Then we tried to do it by ourselves under his instruction. Finally, after failing several times I succeeded in drawing a picture of bamboo, made me so happy. In this lesson, we were deeply by the beauty of Chinese paintings and proud of Chinese. We hope we can have more of this kind in the future! [3] When I was 5 years old, I started my journey to the world of music. Playing the piano becomes a great source of joy. Now, study alone abroad, I have found other way to enjoy music—performing in my school band. I remember the very first time when I played in a band. I practiced a lot. Still, when I sat at the piano, I felt scared and it seemed that I was getting small. My hands went cold when the conductor and other band member stared at me. The string of notes that came out the piano could not be calling a melody. However, that was only the beginning of your challenges. In my opinion, even though the challenges are difficult for me to get through, but they make both me and the band even strong. 答案: When I was 5 years old, I started my journey to the world of music. Playing the piano a great source of joy. Now, alone abroad, I have found way to enjoy music—performing in my school band. I remember the very first time when I played in band. I practiced a lot. Still, when I sat at the piano, I felt scared and it seemed that I was getting small. My hands went cold when the conductor and other band stared at me. The string of notes that came out the piano could not be a melody. However, that was only the beginning of challenges. In my opinion, even though the challenges are difficult for me to get through, eq \o(,\s\do15(⑨))/ they make both me and the band even . [4] Attention, swimmer! Please listen carefully to the followed information. All guests must sign out and leave a photo ID at the front desk. It is required which all swimmers should shower with soap before entering the pool. In addition to, all swimmers must wear proper bathing suits. If our staff determined that your clothes are not appropriate, you will be forbidden to enter the pool. If you are sick and have signs of illness, don't use the pool. Please remind your children to use the bathroom. If they have “accidents”, report them to the gym staff immediate. Children under 10 years old must be accompanied by a adult at all times. Remind children that spitting not allowed. 答案: Attention, ! Please listen carefully to the information. All guests must sign and leave a photo ID at the front desk. It is required all swimmers should shower with soap before entering the pool. In addition eq \o(,\s\do15(⑤)), all swimmers must wear proper bathing suits. If our staff that your clothes are not appropriate, you will be forbidden to enter the pool. If you are sick have signs of illness, don't use the pool. Please remind your children to use the bathroom. If they have “accidents”, report them to the gym staff . Children under 10 years old must be accompanied by adult at all times. Remind children that spitting not allowed. PAGE - 1 - (共41张PPT) 第2讲  句法类 过关检测 强化特训 答案 第3讲 篇法类 篇法类错误也就是行文逻辑类错误相对来说并不是很难,但考生要从整体入手,放眼全篇,它可能从单句来看在语法上并没有错误,但放入特定语境则不正确,一般来说我们可以从上下文、惯用法、主从句及语意语境等方面去着手,我们建议在解题流程的第3步去解决此类错误。 考点 指代类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ) ... I started to play my football with classmates after school. 答案 去掉my 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)I had done myself homework, but I was shy. 答案 myself→my 3.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)If we go on a trip abroad, we can broaden your view and gain knowledge we cannot get from books. 答案 your→our 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)Mr and Mrs Zhang all work in our school. 答案 all→both 5.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)It does not cost many, yet we can still learn a lot. 答案 many→much 6.(2015·浙江高考)Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around them. 答案 them→it   对于代词类错误一是要关注上下句或上下文,看指代对象、代词性别、代词的单复数、代词的格等是否逻辑一致,代词与反身代词、名词性物主代词和形容词性物主代词是否混淆;二是要熟知常见的不定代词的区别,如some与any,many与much,either与neither等。 考点 逻辑关系类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ)Suddenly a football fell just in front of me but almost hit me. 答案 but→and 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)Everyone was silent, waiting to see who would be called upon to read his and her paragraph aloud. 答案 and→or 3.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the instructor's orders, so once I started the car, my mind went back. 答案 so→but/yet 4.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)Though not very big, but the restaurant is popular in our area. 答案 去掉but 5.(2015·陕西高考)My only mistake was that I dropped some on the floor after I was packing them up. 答案 after→when/while   对于连词类错误考生一方面要在熟悉常见连词用法的基础上去看上下文的语境,另一方面要知晓连词的考查类型:①删除:如,because或since与so连用时,删除so;though/although/as与but连用时,删除but;②误用:如,or与and,and与but,so与but,before与after,before/after与when/while等。 考点 情境类错误 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅱ)I wanted to be a teacher because I liked my English teacher too much. 答案 too→very/so 2.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ)I became ... One afternoon ... From now on, I started to ... 答案 now→then  对于情境类错误,考生一定要放眼全局,从特定语境和语篇情感入手,尤其注意固定词语中体现时间和情感的副词。 过关检测(限时:20分钟) (2019·贵州模拟)Life is full of various experiences, some of them are unforgettable. I still remember the hiking experiences with my classmates for 16 km a year later. That summer day, we set off early in the morning, think it would be great fun to walk for so long a distance. However, with the weather is getting hotter and hotter, I found their legs heavier and heavier. What's worse, my feet began bleeding because long time pressing against the shoes. At one point, I even wanted to give up. But I manage to drag the rest of the way to the destination. Though not pleasant, this journey was impressive or rewarding. I have learnt that life is a long journey like this. No matter what happened, we should never give up. 答案: Life is full of various experiences, some of are unforgettable. I still remember the hiking with my classmates for 16 km a year . That summer day, we set off early in the morning, it would be great fun to walk for so long a distance. However, with the weather eq \o(,\s\do15(⑤)) getting hotter and hotter, I found legs heavier and heavier. What's worse, my feet began bleeding because long time pressing against the shoes. At one point, I even wanted to give up. But I to drag the rest of the way to the destination. Though not pleasant, this journey was impressive rewarding. I have learnt that life is a long journey like this. No matter what , we should never give up. (2019·洛阳一模)In my spare time, I often read some books written by famous writers in or abroad. I ever read China's Four Great Classical novel such as Journey to the West. Beside, I enjoy reading Tang poetry. I have been writing from I was nine years old. I am remember the first time my parents and I talked about my dream of becoming writer. They laughed happy when they read the short story I write about robots. They think that my story is well worth read and that I am good at writing. I believe I will achieve their dream. 答案: In my spare time, I often read some books written by famous writers in abroad. I ever read China's Four Great Classical such as Journey to the West. , I enjoy reading Tang poetry. I have been writing I was nine years old. I eq \o(,\s\do15(⑤)) remember the first time my parents and I talked about my dream of becoming writer. They laughed when they read the short story I about robots. They think that my story is well worth and that I am good at writing. I believe I will achieve dream. 强化特训2 短文改错(三)(限时:30分钟) [1] (2019·太原模拟)Chinese is one of the world's most widely spoken languages. There are much different types of Chinese. For example, one type known as Mandarin, had almost a billion speakers. Outside of China, Chinese in some form is spoken Chinese communities worldwide. The different kinds of Chinese language use a same script. While someone from the north of China may need the speech of someone from the south interpreted, but it is not usually necessary to have written documents translating. In the early twenty century, a government language policy created Modern Standard Chinese, that is now the official language of China. It is one of the official language of the United Nations to develop more effectively communication. 答案: Chinese is one of the world's most widely spoken languages. There are different types of Chinese. For example, one type known as Mandarin, almost a billion speakers. Outside of China, Chinese in some form is spoken Chinese communities worldwide. The different kinds of Chinese language use same script. While someone from the north of China may need the speech of someone from the south interpreted, eq \o(,\s\do15(⑤)) it is not usually necessary to have written documents . In the early century, a government language policy created Modern Standard Chinese, is now the official language of China. It is one of the official of the United Nations to develop more communication. [2] (2019·南宁联考)I came to the US as a exchange student a year before. There are four people in my host family. They are Mr Garavalia, his wife and his child. The host family has a magic what has pulled me in and make me part of it. I remember when I first arrived at my house, it was far past their usual bedtime. But Mr Garavalia still waited me in the living room and gave me a huge hug just as I walked in. I was felt so warm after 14 hours of tired flight. Every day they treat me as if I were their really family. I love them very much. 答案: I came to the US as exchange student a year . There are four people in my host family. They are Mr Garavalia, his wife and his . The host family has a magic has pulled me in and me part of it. I remember when I first arrived at house, it was far past their usual bedtime. But Mr Garavalia still waited me in the living room and gave me a huge hug just as I walked in. I eq \o(,\s\do15(⑧)) felt so warm after 14 hours of flight. Every day they treat me as if I were their family. I love them very much. [3] (2019·成都市高中毕业班第一次诊断)One of the biggest cultural difference I noticed while I was in London was why the people of London conducted themselves. It seemed that they took many pride in their country. I also notice that they always seemed to dress well, and always had their hair and makeup do. I don't think I saw one person in sweat pants during their whole trip! At times I found it harder to make the change being in the US to being in London. I've found out that Americans are loud! Even at the pubs and clubs in London, I felt like that we were a loudest ones! 答案: One of the biggest cultural I noticed while I was in London was the people of London conducted themselves. It seemed that they took pride in their country. I also that they always seemed to dress well, and always had their hair and makeup . I don't think I saw one person in sweat pants during whole trip! At times I found it to make the change being in the US to being in London. I've found out that Americans are loud! Even at the pubs and clubs in London, I felt eq \o(,\s\do12(⑨)) that we were loudest ones! [4] (2019·河北省“五个一名校联盟\”高三二模)A big storm destroyed two villages in South Africa on last Friday, causing 4 death. Over 200 people became homeless as a result of the storm. A farmer said the storm began early in the morning and last one hour. He said, “I was in the kitchen with my wife and children while we heard a loud noise. A few minutes late, our house fell down. I managed to climb out, but much to my shocking, one of my boys were missing. I quickly went back inside and found them safe but frightened.” Soldiers came to rescue those burying under the ruins, and the government provided food, clothes, and shelters for homeless. 答案: A big storm destroyed two villages in South Africa eq \o(,\s\do12(①)) last Friday, causing 4 . Over 200 people became homeless as a result of the storm. A farmer said the storm began early in the morning and one hour. He said, “I was in the kitchen with my wife and children we heard a loud noise. A few minutes , our house fell down. I managed to climb out, but much to my , one of my boys missing. I quickly went back inside and found safe but frightened.” Soldiers came to rescue those under the ruins, and the government provided food, clothes, and shelters for homeless. PAGE - 1 - (共36张PPT) 第3讲  篇法类 过关检测 强化特训 答案

  • ID:4-6784930 2020高考英语大二轮复习冲刺经典专题语法部分专题三重难点课时第1-3讲时态、非谓语、并列句

    高中英语/高考专区/二轮专题/各类题型专题/语法填空

    专题三 考点通关 第1讲 谓语动词(时态、语态和主谓一致) 无论在语法填空还是短文改错中,动词的考查都是高考的必考点和重难点,在解答有关动词类的试题时,考生必须要分清是谓语动词还是非谓语动词,一个句子无论主句还是从句,必须要有谓语,对于语法填空来说,如果句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之是并列关系时,所给动词就是谓语动词,对于短文改错来说,则主要是时态、语态的错用或主谓不一致。无论是语法填空还是短文改错,一旦我们判定为谓语动词时,都要综合考虑时态、语态和主谓一致的情况,因为这些都是紧密联系在一起进行考查的,都是高考的设题点。 考点感悟 语法填空 短文改错 语法填空对谓语动词的考查主要涉及动词的时态、语态和主谓一致三方面。感1.(2019·江苏高考)A few months after he had arrived in China, Mr Smith ________ (fall) in love with the people and culture there.答案:fell 句意:史密斯先生抵达中国几个月后,爱上了那里的人和文化。arrive用了过去完成时,表示“过去的过去”,所以此处用一般过去时。 2.(2019·浙江高考)When every pupil in the school wears the uniform, nobody ________ (have) to worry about fashion (时尚).答案:has/will have 空格前面的从句为一般现在时,主句谓语动词应该用一般现在时或者一般将来时。而句子主语nobody是第三人称单数,所以当句子为一般现在时,谓语动词用第三人称单数。 3.(2019·天津高考)Amy, as well as her brothers, ________ (give) a warm welcome when returning to the village last week.答案:was given A as well as B作主语时,谓语动词的单复数由A,也就是本题中的Amy决定;由last week可知give表示的动作发生在过去,且Amy与give之间是被动关系,故用一般过去时的被动语态。 4.(2018·浙江高考)While regularly eating out seems to ________ (become) common for many young people in recent years, it's not without a cost.答案:have become 根据时间状语in recent years可知,此处应用现在完成时。 seem to have done “似乎已经做过”。 5.(2017·天津高考)I ________ (drive) down to London when I suddenly found that I was on the wrong road.答案:was driving 此处为be doing ... when ... 结构,根据从句中的found可知,主句应用过去进行时。 短文改错对谓语动词的考查重点是并列谓语动词形式不一致、主谓不一致、上下文时态不一致、主动语态和被动语态误用、过去式与过去分词形式不正确这几个方面。感1.(2019·四川成都高三第三次诊断)I listed all of my achievements and the voluntary work I have done. _________________________________________________________________答案:have→had 这里含有一个定语从句,先行词是the voluntary work,表示发生在“过去的过去”,用过去完成时,所以have改为had。 2.(2019·江西横峰中学五校竞赛)All the international students was quite interested in my introduction. __________________________________________________________________答案:was→were All the international students作主语,谓语应该使用复数形式,故将was改为were。 3.(2019·长春质检)You are the most considerate person who know exactly what I need in our class. __________________________________________________________________答案:know→knows 定语从句中的谓语动词的单复数应和先行词保持一致。 4.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside the shop. __________________________________________________________________答案:telling→told and后的动词和saw是并列关系,故形式应和saw一致。 5.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem. ___________________________________________________________________答案:去掉been studies和show之间为主动关系。 6.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)It was Monday morning, and the writing class had just begin. ____________________________________________________________________答案:begin→begun 根据语意语境可知,and并列句应用过去完成时,即had done的形式,begin的过去分词应为begun。 续表 语法填空 短文改错 悟1.时态 对于时态问题我们可通过①时态定义,即各时态的基本用法;②标志性状语;③主从句时态的呼应;④固定句式结构;⑤语境暗示,这五个方面来解决。(参“考点素能一”) 2.语态 对于语态问题我们主要是根据与主语的逻辑关系来解决,语态考查是包含在时态之中的,不可分割。 3.主谓一致 对于主谓一致的问题,要根据主谓一致的三原则来解决。 悟1.时态 短文改错中一定要注意:上下文时态、并列连词所连接的时态及并列句中的谓语动词的时态,都应保持一致。此外,还要注意过去式与过去分词的形式是否正确。 2.语态 判断主被动语态的关键在于判断主语与谓语动词的关系为主动还是被动关系。 3.主谓一致 熟悉主谓一致的语法知识为解题关键,平时一定要注意总结记忆。 考点素能 一 动词的时态和语态 解答谓语动词的时态和语态的问题时,可通过以下几种途径来解决: 1.通过“时态定义”解决时态:虽然新课标或考纲中列出了10种时态,但近三年全国卷主要考查一般现在时和一般过去时两种时态。尽管如此,以下8种时态的基本用法和构成还应掌握。准确理解常考时态的定义是做题的根本。 一般将来时 will do 过去将来时 would do 一般现在时 do/does 一般过去时 did 现在进行时 am/is/are doing 过去进行时 was/were doing 现在完成时 have/has done 过去完成时 had done 2.通过“标志性状语”解决时态:高考中,很多题目本身就带有明确的用某种时态的时间状语,要学会利用这些状语来解决时态问题。 (1)看到always, every time, now and then, often, seldom, sometimes, usually等表示频率的时间状语,要想到用一般现在时。 (2)看到yesterday, last week, two days ago, the other day, in 1998, just now, once upon a time等时间状语,要想到用一般过去时。 (3)看到tomorrow, next year, in a week等时间状语,要想到用一般将来时。 (4)看到the next day/morning, the next/following week/month/year等时间状语,要想到用过去将来时。 (5)看到all the time, now, at 4 o'clock, at this moment, at present等时间状语,要想到用现在进行时。 (6)看到at that time, at this time yesterday, at five yesterday, the whole morning等时间状语,要想到用过去进行时。 (7)看到at this time tomorrow, from 1:30 to 4:30 tomorrow等时间状语,要想到用将来进行时。 (8)看到since, recently, lately, already, in/for/during the last/past few years, so far, up to now, during the past/last+时间段等时间状语,要想到用现在完成时。 (9)看到by that time, by the end of+过去时间,before 2000, by the time+一般过去时的从句,要想到用过去完成时。 (10)看到by the time+一般现在时的从句,by the end of+将来时间的名词,by+将来时间名词等时间状语,要想到用将来完成时。 3.通过“动作先后”解决时态:此种方法主要用来解决两种类型的试题:①并列连词and, but, as well as, or, or else, both ... and ..., neither ... nor ..., either ... or ..., not only ... but also ..., rather than等及从属连词than可连接两个平行的结构。平行的另外一个结构与所选谓语动词的先后关系,决定着所选动词的时态;②涉及主从句时态的题目,我们可通过考虑主句和从句的关系和动作发生的时间先后来确定时态。 例如: One day, when I was drawing diagrams on the balcony and he ________ (bathe) inside, the volcano erupted unexpectedly. 本句为and连接的并列结构,根据前面的was drawing便可得知此处应填 was bathing。 Mr White ________ (teach) in our school for nearly forty years before he retired last month. 根据for nearly forty years可知应用完成时,再根据before从句中的retired可知,从句中用的为过去时,主句动作发生在其前,故应用过去完成时,即had taught。 4.通过“语境暗示”解决时态:实际上,高考对时态的考查更注重“情境立意”,即考生在具体的语境下运用各种时态的能力。正因为如此,有些试题的时间状语和其他参照物都不明显,此时考生要树立全局观念,根据提供的语境,挖掘隐含信息,从而找到解题的突破口。 例如: While online shopping ________ (change) our life, not all of its effects have been positive. 根据语境结合后面的have been可知此处应用现在完成时,强调对现在造成的结果或影响,又主语为online shopping,故应填has changed。 5.通过“固定句式”解决时态:所谓固定就是需要考生记住,因此考生必须要熟记一些常见的固定句式结构。 (1)看到no sooner ... than ...或hardly ... when ...,要想到主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。 (2)看到并列连词when,要想到was/were doing sth. when ...;be about to do sth. when ...等句式。 (3)看到It/This/That is+the+序数词+time+that从句,要想到从句用现在完成时。 (4)看到It/This/That was+the+序数词+time+that从句,要想到从句用过去完成时。 (5)在时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,如果主句是一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时表示将来。 (6)在由since引导的时间状语从句中,如果主句是现在完成时,从句则用一般过去时。 (7)看到“祈使句+and/or+陈述句”,要想到陈述句用一般将来时。 6.通过“逻辑关系”解决语态:对于语态问题的解题关键就在于理清主语与谓语的关系,如果为主动关系,则用主动语态,如果为被动关系,则用被动语态。需要注意的是,考生在做题时往往对时态问题比较关注,但却容易忽略语态问题,因此我们可采用“先语态,后时态”的做题方式来避免此类问题的发生。被动语态在各种时态中的构成形式如下所示: 7.注意“特殊动词”:有些动词(短语)的用法比较特殊,要格外注意。如belong to(属于)不用进行时和被动语态;date from或date back to(追溯到)常用一般现在时;系动词如look, seem, feel, taste, sound, smell, prove, appear等不能用被动语态。对于这些特殊的词汇,考生务必要记牢。 二 主谓一致 所谓主谓一致,就是说在英语中,句子的谓语动词的形式应与句子的主语在人称和数上保持一致。主谓一致主要分为语法一致、意义一致及就近或就远一致,共三种。近几年来高考中对它的考查主要集中于语法一致和意义一致,并且常将主谓一致与动词的时态和语态结合起来进行考查。 1.语法一致 (1)可数名词单数或不可数名词作主语时谓语动词用单数;可数名词复数作主语时谓语动词用复数。 (2)在定语从句中,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中的先行词的数一致。 (3)单个动名词、不定式、名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。但what引导的主语从句表示复数概念时,谓语动词用复数。 2.意义一致 (1)集体名词作主语时,若强调整体,则谓语动词用单数;若强调个体,则谓语动词用复数。 常见的集体名词有:family, class, team, group, public, committee, government, audience等。 (2)“分数/百分数/the majority +of +名词”作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于of后名词的数及其表示的意义;all, some, half, most, the rest等作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于主语实际表达的意义。 3.就近/就远原则 (1)就近原则:由either ... or ..., neither ... nor ..., not ... but ..., not only ... but also ... 等连接的并列主语或者在there be句型中,谓语动词常与最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。 (2)就远原则:主语后跟有with, together with, along with, as well as, but, except, rather than, including等引起的短语时,谓语动词的数要与前面的主语保持一致。 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.—Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for? —The new Star Wars. We ________ (wait) here for more than two hours. 答案:have been waiting 2.Just as I got to the school gate, I realized I ________ (leave) my book in the café. 答案:had left 3.Festivals and celebrations of all kinds ________ (hold) everywhere since ancient times. 答案:have been held 4.Long ago Hongbao ________ (see) as a means of protecting children from evil spirits. 答案:was seen 5.—You look so tired and pale. Anything wrong? —I hate to complain, but a new road ________ (build) throughout the night. 答案:was being built 6.It is reported that his new book ________ (publish) by that company next year. 答案:will be published 7.How close parents are to their children ________ (have) a strong influence on the development of the children's characters. 答案:has 8.It took a long time but eventually the dog ________ (stop) barking and the man was able to touch it. 答案:stopped 9.The famous musician, as well as his students, ________ (invite) to perform at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Taipei Flower Expo. 答案:was invited 10.You rather than I ________ (be) going to go camping tomorrow. 答案:are Ⅱ.单句改错 1.I wept and said I do want to do my best but I just couldn't concentrate. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:第一个do→did 2.More efforts, as reported, will make in the years ahead to accelerate the supply-side structural reform. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:make→be made 3.Despite the previous rounds of talks, no agreement has reached so far by the two sides. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:has后加been 4.—What time is it? —I have no idea. But just a minute, I check it for you. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:check前加will 5.The fact that so many people still smoke in public places suggest that we may need a nationwide campaign to raise awareness of the risks of smoking. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:suggest→suggests 6.They felt that the British economy was been held back by excessive government controls. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:been→being 7.One-third of the country is covered with trees and the majority of the citizens is black people. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:第二个is→are 8.Our school along with many other brother middle schools are to take another joint test next month. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:are→is 9.The man returned the handbag after he made sure it was belonged to her. _________________________________________________________________ 答案:去掉was 10.A recent survey shows that the number of children who come from the countryside with their parents are nearly 320,000 in Beijing. _________________________________________________________________ 答案:are→is Ⅲ.语法填空 To be a charming (有魅力的) leader, it helps to have speaking skills that convey strength and experience. Contrary __1__ popular belief, a speaker's message may not matter as much as the style in which the speech __2__ (deliver). A new study finds it's a leader's tone of voice __3__ is actually important. Researchers from the University of California analyzed the vocal styles of four US politicians. They found that while all of them presented __4__ (complete) different messages, they __5__ (change) their voices in similar ways, depending on the audience. “Politicians use voice as a strong tool __6__ (convey) their charm,” Rosario Signorello, one of the researchers behind the work, said at a recent conference. When it comes to politics, it's not only about __7__ you say but how you say it. There's a good reason why some of the most successful politicians, for better or worse, are also known as outstanding __8__ (speak), able to persuade large and diverse crowds with __9__ (attraction) speeches. But it's not just about the words they choose; the same paragraph might sound boring in a flat speaker's voice but beautiful when __10__ (recite) by a Shakespearean actor. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇说明文。文章主要讲述的是领导者的演说魅力的来源。 1.to 考查介词。(be) contrary to “与……相反”,为固定搭配。 2.is delivered 考查动词的时态和语态。本文阐述一种研究成果,且全文用一般现在时作为基本时态,因此此处应用一般现在时;又因speech和deliver “发表”之间是被动关系,所以要用被动语态。 3.that 考查强调句式。一项新的研究表明,一个领导者的语调才是真正重要的东西。本句为强调句的基本句型:It's+被强调部分+that+其他部分,句中被强调的部分a leader's tone of voice为主语。 4.completely 考查词性转换。修饰形容词应用副词completely。 5.changed 考查动词的时态。根据上文的 “analyzed”“found”可知,此处表示发生在过去的事情,故应用一般过去时。 6.to convey 考查非谓语动词。政治家们把声音作为一种有力的工具来表现他们的魅力。use sth. to do sth. “用某物做某事”为固定用法,故空处填to convey。 7.what 考查宾语从句的连接词。当谈及政治的时候,它不仅关乎所说的内容,也关乎你表达它的方式。设空处在句中引导从句作about的宾语,且在从句中作say的宾语,故用what,意为“……的事物、东西”。 8.speakers 考查词性转换。根据语境可知,此处表示一些最成功的政治家也被称为杰出的演讲者。空格前有形容词outstanding作定语,故空格处应填名词,且speaker “演讲者”是可数名词,其前无限定词,故应用其复数形式speakers。 9.attractive 考查词性转换。空格处在句中作定语修饰名词speeches,故应用形容词attractive “有吸引力的”。 10.recited 考查非谓语动词。句子主语the same paragraph与recite之间是被动关系,应用其过去分词形式,构成状语从句的省略形式。 Ⅳ.短文改错 (2019·合肥一中高三月考)In couple of weeks, we'll say goodbye to our school. Now this is really hard to put my feelings into words. The past three years has general been a wonderful journey with you guys. To make the journey good and safer, our teachers had contributed their time and energy. We are grateful to what you, dear teachers, have done for us. No matter whether unwilling we are, we will depart soon. And it is not the end. It just means it's time to begin a new journey. Finally, on behalf of all the graduate here, let me to extend our sincere wishes to our school and to our teachers. Thank you! 答案: In couple of weeks, we'll say goodbye to our school. Now is really hard to put my feelings into words. The past three years has been a wonderful journey with you guys. To make the journey and safer, our teachers contributed their time and energy. We are grateful what you, dear teachers, have done for us. No matter unwilling we are, we will depart soon. it is not the end. It just means it's time to begin a new journey. Finally, on behalf of all the here, let me eq \o(,\s\do15(⑩)) extend our sincere wishes to our school and to our teachers. Thank you! PAGE - 1 - (共64张PPT) 第1讲  谓语动词(时态、语态和主谓一致) 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 本课结束 答案 第2讲 非谓语动词 无论在语法填空还是短文改错中,非谓语动词都是历年高考的必考点,是考生必须要掌握的知识。在解答有关非谓语动词类的试题时,考生同样必须要分清是谓语动词还是非谓语动词,如果句中找到了谓语动词,而又找不到连词?并列连词或从句连词?,则所给动词一定用非谓语动词形式。当我们确定应用非谓语动词后,就要根据相应的语法知识去判断应使用非谓语动词的哪种形式,是v.-ing、v.-ed形式还是不定式。 考点感悟 语法填空 短文改错 语法填空对非谓语动词作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、补语都会有所涉及,其中作状语、定语、宾语和补语的考查更为突出。感1.(2019·天津滨海七所重点学校联考)________ (free) the students from their endless homework the school has decided to take a series of measures.答案:To free 句意:为了把学生从没完没了的作业中解放出来,学校决定采取一系列措施。本句已经存在谓语动词且句中没有连词,故free只能作非谓语动词,在本句中作目的状语故用不定式。2.(2019·江苏无锡高三期末)A case of suspected food poisoning in New York has led to 6 high school students ________ (send) to hospital.答案:being sent 句意:纽约一个疑似食品中毒的案件已经导致6名高中生被送到医院了。lead to “导致”,其中的to是介词,后面接动名词的复合结构:逻辑主语(6 high school students)+动名词,因为students和send之间是被动关系,故用动名词的被动式。 3.(2019·江苏高考)China's image is improving steadily, with more countries ________ (recognize) its role in international affairs.答案:recognizing 句意:中国的形象正在稳步提升,更多的国家认识到中国在国际事务中的作用。此处是with复合结构(with+宾语+宾补),more countries与recognize (承认,认识,认可)之间是主动关系,故用现在分词作宾补。 4.(2018·北京高考)________ (travel) along the old Silk Road is an interesting and rewarding experience.答案:Traveling 此处为动名词作主语的用法。 5.(2018·江苏高考)Around 13, 500 new jobs were created during the period, ________ (exceed) the expected number of 12, 000 held by market analysts.答案:exceeding 此处用非谓语动词作结果状语,exceed与主语Around 13, 500 new jobs为主动关系,且与句子谓语动词没有先后关系,故应用现在分词。 6.(2018·天津高考)It took him a long time ________ (acquire) the skills he needed to become a good dancer.答案:to acquire 此处为It takes/took sb. to do sth.固定句式。 7.(2018·北京高考)Ordinary soap, ________ (use) correctly, can deal with bacteria effectively.答案:used 此处为非谓语动词作状语的用法,use与逻辑主语为被动关系。 8.(2018·天津高考)I need a new passport so I will have to have my photograph ________ (take).答案:taken 此处为非谓语动词作宾补的用法,take与宾语photograph为被动关系。   短文改错对非谓语动词的考查主要集中于动词与非谓语动词的误用、现在分词与过去分词的误用、不定式符号的误用、缺失或多余。感1.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)I want my cafe have a special theme such as “Tang Dynasty”. ___________________________________________________________________答案:cafe后加to want sb./sth. to do sth. “希望某人/某物做某事”。2.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)When summer comes, they will invite their students pick the fresh vegetables. ________________________________________________________________答案:pick前加to invite sb. to do sth.意为“邀请某人去做某事”。 3.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)We hope that all of us will devote our efforts to protect pandas and let them live in the wild again some day. ________________________________________________________________答案:protect→protecting devote ... to ... “致力于……”,其中的to为介词而非不定式符号,故其后应跟动名词形式。 4.(2019·广州调研)They send letters to businesses, going to job interviews, and ask their friends and relatives for help. ________________________________________________________________答案:going→go 根据语意语境可知,该句陈述的是当前的行为,且此处与send,ask并列,故应用动词原形。 5.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)I showed them I was independent by wear. ________________________________________________________________答案:wear→wearing 介词后应用动名词形式作宾语。 6.(2016·四川高考)Mom was grateful and moving. ________________________________________________________________答案:moving→moved 根据语意“妈妈很感激和感动”可知,此处应用由过去分词转化而来的形容词moved作表语,意为“感动的”,用来修饰人。 悟 无论语法填空还是短文改错,熟悉非谓语动词的基本用法及作同种成分时的用法区别都是解题的关键。另外平时还要多记固定搭配和常用形式,学会分析句子结构,判断句子成分,这样才能以不变应万变。 考点素能 一 非谓语动词的解题原则 原则1 了解句法功能,分析句子结构,判断句子成分,确定非谓语动词形式 非谓语动词在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、状语、定语、补语多种成分,理解非谓语动词的句法功能,判断出其应作哪种成分是解题的关键。 ①作伴随状语和结果状语时用现在分词 More highways have been built in China, making it much easier for people to travel from one place to another. 中国又建了更多的高速公路,这使人们从一处到另一处的出行变得更容易了。(表结果) All night long he lay awake, thinking of the problem. 他整夜躺在床上睡不着,思考着那个问题。(表伴随) [特别提醒] 源于系表结构的部分过去分词作状语,表示句子主语所处的一种状态,常见的有:seated (坐着的),devoted (专注的),lost/absorbed in (沉溺于),dressed in (穿着)等。 Absorbed in his book, he didn't notice me enter the room. 他专注读书,没注意到我进入房间。 ②作目的状语时用不定式,且只能用不定式的一般式 ●非谓语动词作目的状语,要想到用不定式。 To make it easier to get in touch with us, you'd better keep this card at hand. 为了更容易与我们取得联系,你最好随身带着这张卡片。 ●非谓语动词作结果状语,表示出乎意料的结果要想到用不定式,表示必然的结果要想到用现在分词。 He hurried to the station only to find that the train had left. 他匆匆赶到车站结果却发现火车已经离开了。(表出乎意料的结果) ●非谓语动词作原因状语,表示“喜怒哀乐”的形容词要想到用不定式;非谓语动词作时间状语、条件状语和原因状语等要想到用分词。 I am only too glad to see everything settled. 看到一切问题都解决了,我很高兴。 Being tired, he went to bed early. 因为很累,他很早就睡了。 ③作主语时常用动名词,作介词的宾语时一定用动名词 ●分析句子成分,如果一个经常性、习惯性的动作作主语,常用v.-ing形式。 Knowing basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies. 掌握基本的急救技能将有助于你在遇到紧急情况时迅速做出反应。 ●介词和带介词to的固定搭配一定跟v.-ing作宾语。 I'm looking forward to hearing from you as soon as possible. 我希望尽快收到你的来信。 ④作表语时指物用v.-ing,指人用v.-ed形式 ●牢记v.-ing作表语或定语时常指物,v.-ed作表语或定语时常指人。 He was very shocked to learn the shocking news that his wife was killed in a traffic accident. 得知他的妻子在交通事故中死亡这一令人震惊的消息时,他非常吃惊。 原则2 利用固定搭配或习惯用法,确定非谓语动词形式 ①牢记用v.-ing/to do形式作宾语的词(短语) ●接v.-ing形式作宾语的常用动词(短语)有:suggest, risk, imagine, mind, admit, practice, allow, avoid, delay, include, deny, escape, advise, finish, miss, forgive, consider, recommend, forbid, give up, insist on, look forward to, feel like, get down to, object to, devote ... to, pay attention to等。 I avoided mentioning the subject in case he should be offended. 我回避提及这个话题,以免冒犯他。 ●接to do形式作宾语的常用动词(短语)有:decide, refuse, promise, pretend, hesitate, manage, plan, fail, choose, desire, hope, afford, agree, learn, determine, demand, offer, make up one's mind, would like等。 Nervous and anxious, Jill failed to make a good impression at the job interview. 又紧张又焦虑,吉尔没有在面试中给人留下好印象。 ●有些动词或动词短语既可接不定式作宾语,也可接动名词作宾语,但表示的含义不同。 mean forget remember regret try go on can't help I regret to tell you that he didn't take your application into consideration. 我很遗憾地告诉你他没有考虑你的申请。 I regret making rude comments on your appearance. 我很后悔对你的外表做了粗鲁的评论。 ②掌握非谓语动词的几种句型公式 ●不定式作宾语补足语 tell/order/persuade/force/warn/encourage/ask/invite+sb. to do sth. I'd like to invite you to take part in the activity. 我想邀请你参加这项活动。 ●用省略“to”的不定式作宾语补足语的动词:“五看;三使;二听;一感觉”。 五看:look at/watch/notice/see/observe sb. do sth.; 三使:make/have/let sb. do sth.; 二听:listen to/hear sb. do sth.; 一感觉:feel sb. do sth.。 The boss made the workers do the work all day. 老板迫使工人们整天干活。 ●用于it形式主语结构中 It+be+名词或形容词(no good/no use/a pleasure/worthwhile/useless)+动词-ing; It+be+形容词(difficult/kind/clever等)+for/of sb. to do sth.; It+takes+sb.+some time+to do sth. As is known to us, it's no use complaining without taking action. 众所周知,只抱怨不采取行动没用。 ③with复合结构中补足语的比较 with With so many people looking at him, he felt very nervous. 那么多人看着他,他感到很紧张。 With the problem solved, the quality has been improved. 问题解决了,质量也提高了。 ④有些非谓语动词形式的固定结构需牢记 considering that 鉴于,考虑到 judging by/from 从……来判断 supposing/providing/provided/assuming that ... 假定,假设 compared with/to 与……相比 Michael's new house is like a huge palace, compared with his old one. 与迈克尔的旧房子比起来,他的新房子像个大宫殿。 原则3 理清逻辑关系,确定非谓语动词形式 解答非谓语动词的试题时,要能辨明其与逻辑主语的关系为主动关系还是被动关系,主动考虑用v.-ing形式,被动则考虑用v.-ed形式。 ①非谓语动词作定语 若非谓语动词作定语,与其逻辑主语为主动关系时用现在分词,为被动关系时用过去分词。 “Things lost never come again!” I couldn't help talking to myself. 我不禁自言自语:“覆水难收啊!” Last night, there were millions of people watching the opening ceremony live on TV. 昨晚,有上百万的人观看开幕式的电视直播。 ②非谓语动词作状语/补语 ●若非谓语动词作状语,则其逻辑主语是句子的主语。若句子的主语是分词动作的发出者,即主谓关系,则用现在分词形式;若句子的主语是分词动作的承受者,即动宾关系,则用过去分词。 Translated into English, the sentence was found to have an entirely different word order. 这个句子被译成英语后,被发现有一个完全不同的语序。 Hearing the good news, they were all excited. 听到这个消息,他们都非常激动。 ●若非谓语动词作宾语补足语,则其逻辑主语是句子的宾语。若宾语是分词动作的发出者,即主谓关系,且强调进行,则用现在分词形式;若宾语是分词动作的承受者,即动宾关系,则用过去分词。 I saw him climbing the fence just now. 我刚才看见他在爬栅栏。 A villager saw the little girl taken away by a middle-aged lady. 一位村民看见这个小女孩被一位中年妇女带走了。 原则4 根据动作先后及逻辑关系,确定非谓语动词形式 做题时,我们要根据非谓语动词与谓语动词的动作发生的先后顺序,去确定非谓语动词的时态,根据其与逻辑主语的主被动关系去确定语态。 非谓语动词形式 意义 过去分词 表示被动、完成 不定式的被动式 表示被动且尚未发生 现在分词的被动式 表示被动、进行 动名词的被动式 表示被动 非谓语动词的完成式 非谓语动作发生在谓语动作之前 We are invited to a party to be held in our club next Friday. 我们被邀请参加下星期五在我们俱乐部举办的晚会。 Having been told many times, he still couldn't understand it. 被告知了多次,他仍旧不明白。 二 非谓语动词的易错易混点 易错易混点1 现在分词和过去分词作状语 现在分词作状语表示的动作与句子主语之间为逻辑上的主谓关系;过去分词作状语表示的动作与句子主语之间为逻辑上的动宾关系。 [典例1] (2019·福州八中质检)________ (realize) it was our last high school sports meeting, we decided to make it an unforgettable experience for all of us. 解析 Realizing 分析句子结构可知,空格所处的部分为非谓语动词作状语,realize与句子主语we之间为逻辑上的主谓关系,故填Realizing。 [典例2] (2019·蚌埠二中模拟)Greatly ________ (encourage), the team conducted another experiment, this time with water that contained bacteria. 解析 encouraged 分析句子结构可知,空格所处的部分为非谓语动词作状语,encourage与句子主语the team之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,故填encouraged。 易错易混点2 现在分词和过去分词作前置定语和表语 作前置定语和表语时,现在分词和过去分词都相当于形容词,前者意为“令人……的”,后者意为“感到……的”。 [典例1] (2019·全国卷Ⅲ)I quickly lower myself, ducking my head to avoid looking directly into his eyes so he doesn't feel ________ (challenge). 解析 challenged feel为系动词,后接形容词;此处表示“……被挑战的”,用由过去分词转化来的形容词challenged。 [典例2] (2019·山西省实验中学质检)Dennis Williams, the new owner of the phone numbers, responded to the ________ (excite) baby news. 解析 exciting 此处为非谓语动词作前置定语,表示“令人兴奋的有关孩子的消息”。故填exciting。 [典例3] (2019·山西长泊二中等五校一联)With a ________ (puzzle) look on my face, I pointed to myself and said, “Me?” 解析 puzzled 句意:脸上带着疑惑的表情,我指着自己说:“我吗?” a puzzled look “困惑的表情”;过去分词表示人的心理特征,也用于修饰体现内心感受的look, expression, tears, voice等名词。 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.________ (catch) the early flight, we ordered a taxi in advance and got up very early. 答案:To catch 2.There is a door ________ (lead) to the garden. 答案:leading 3.They worked day and night, ________ (finish) the work ahead of time. 答案:finishing 4.The two presidents agree with each other on the whole, but much remains ________ (discuss) at the next meeting. 答案:to be discussed 5.________ (absorb) in painting, John didn't notice evening approaching. 答案:Absorbed 6.________ (understand) your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions. 答案:Understanding 7.Amy, please tell the people seated and ________ (wait) for their turns to come to my office five minutes later. 答案:waiting 8.—Any danger for the patient ________ (operate) on by Dr Smith? —Hard to say. Doctors are trying their best. 答案:being operated 9.With the exam ________ (take) place in ten minutes, they were asked to hand in their mobile phones. 答案:to take 10.Yan'an, a city ________ (locate) in northern Shaanxi Province, has seen great progress in its tourism industry over the past few years. 答案:located Ⅱ.单句改错 1.In recent years an English word “infosphere” has appeared, combined the meanings of “information” and “atmosphere”. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:combined→combining 2.We must know what we should do and we should avoid leave a good impression on others in public places. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:avoid后加to 3.You cannot accept an opinion offering to you unless it is based on facts. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:offering→offered 4.The film star wears glasses. Therefore, he can go shopping without recognizing. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:recognizing→being recognized 5.Having working for two days, Steve managed to finish his report on schedule. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:working→worked 6.Back from his two-year medical service in Africa, Dr Lee was very happy to see his mother taking good care of at home. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:taking→taken 7.Amazing at his final score, he decided to treat himself to a big dinner. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:Amazing→Amazed 8.Listening to music at home is one thing, going to hear it performed live is quite another. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:it后加being 9.They were caught in a traffic jam, thus cause the delay. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:cause→causing 10.Halfway through his talk, the speaker stopped and decided create a group activity. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:decided后加to Ⅲ.语法填空 (2019·长沙雅礼中学高三检测)I first discovered China Daily a few years ago. It was the first time that I __1__ (visit) China, and I was waiting for my tour guide __2__ (arrive) at the hotel. I picked up a newspaper written in English—China Daily. I opened the newspaper, and __3__ that day on, in every hotel I visited, when the staff asked me, “A newspaper __4__ (deliver) to your room?” I would always answer, “Do you have China Daily?” Why had I __5__ (immediate) taken a liking to China Daily after just one reading of it? I think that China Daily is a very __6__ (influence) newspaper for many reasons. First of all, China Daily __7__ (write) about both Western and Chinese culture. __8__ example to support this reason is an article I read just the other day:When the Bard (诗人) met his Chinese match. This article is about __9__ both China and the UK will honor their most famous playwrights (剧作家) with a series of __10__ (event) this year. The playwrights are William Shakespeare from the UK and Tang Xianzu from China. And the newspaper also manages to compare them in a proper way. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者是如何与China Daily结下不解之缘的。 1.had visited 考查动词的时态。It was the first time that ... “第一次……”为固定句型,其中的that从句需要用过去完成时。 2.to arrive 考查非谓语动词。“我”在等“我”的导游到达宾馆。wait for sb. to do sth. “等待某人做某事”为固定搭配。 3.from 考查固定搭配。from ... on意为“从……起”,是固定用法。 4.delivered 考查非谓语动词。newspaper与deliver之间是被动关系,故此处使用deliver的过去分词形式。 5.immediately 考查词性转换。为什么“我”仅读了一次《中国日报》就马上喜欢上它了呢?此处应用副词修饰动词。 6.influential 考查词性转换。空格处在句中作定语修饰后面的名词newspaper,故用形容词influential “有影响力的”。 7.writes 考查动词的时态和语态。《中国日报》的内容与中西方文化都有关系。这是一种客观陈述,表示客观事实要用一般现在时。注意:write作“写道,(以文字形式)表达”讲时通常不用被动语态。 8.An 考查冠词。此处泛指“一个例子”,需用不定冠词表泛指,且example的发音以元音音素开头,故需用An。 9.how 考查名词性从句的连接词。此处表示中英两国如何纪念他们最为著名的剧作家。空格处在句中引导一个宾语从句,且表示“如何,怎样”,故用how。 10.events 考查名词。此处表示“一系列活动”,根据前面的a series of和event作“公开活动”讲时是可数名词可知,设空处应填其复数形式。 Ⅳ.短文改错 (2019·河北保定中学高三月考)It's reported that some Chinese tourists behave badly travel at home and abroad. They speak loudly in public places, carve characters at tourist attractions, throw a rubbish everywhere, even cross the road when the traffic lights are still red. Such bad behavior had caused damage to what people think of themselves and our country. Actions should be taken to stop this. First, tourists should be educating to obey social and public order, and respect locally religions and customs. Besides, laws should be made to punish those which don't behave politely in public. I hope soon tourists will change their behavior and win respect of themselves and our country. 答案: It's reported that some Chinese tourists behave badly at home and abroad. They speak loudly in public places, carve characters at tourist attractions, throw eq \o(,\s\do15(②)) rubbish everywhere, even cross the road when the traffic lights are still red. Such bad behavior caused damage to what people think of and our country. should be taken to stop this. First, tourists should be to obey social and public order, and respect religions and customs. Besides, laws should be made to punish those don't behave politely in public. I hope soon tourists will change their behavior and win respect themselves and our country. PAGE - 1 - (共76张PPT) 第2讲  非谓语动词 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 本课结束 答案 解析 第3讲 并列句和复合句 并列句和复合句也是历年高考的必考点和易失分点,考生应高度重视。造成失分的主要原因是不能区分并列句和复合句而误用连词,因此考生必须知晓并列句与定语从句、状语从句及名词性从句的用法区别。解答此类试题的关键在于要学会分析句子并理清逻辑关系。 考点感悟 语法填空 短文改错 语法填空对并列句和复合句的考查是不给提示词的,主要考查应用哪个关连词。感1.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)They were well trained by their masters ________ had great experience with caring for these animals.答案:who 分析句子结构可知,所填词引导定语从句,修饰指人的先行词their masters,且在从句中作主语,故填关系代词who。 2.(2015·广东高考)One day, the cow was eating grass ________ it began to rain heavily.答案:when 此处为sb. be doing ... when ... 结构。 3.(2018·江苏高考)Self?driving is an area ________China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line.答案:where 该句为定语从句,句中an area为先行词,在从句中作地点状语,故用where引导该定语从句。句意:自动驾驶是中国和世界其他地区站在同一起跑线上的领域。 4.(2018·天津高考)The gold medal will be awarded to ________wins the first place in the bicycle race.答案:who/whoever 介词to后是宾语从句。从句中动词wins前缺主语,此处表述: 获得第一名的人/任何获得第一名的人。故用who/whoever引导宾语从句。 5.(2018·天津高考)________we don't stop climate change, many animals and plants in the world will be gone.答案:If 句意:如果我们不停止改变气候,世界上的很多动植物都将会灭绝。if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”。  短文改错对并列句和复合句的考查主要集中于连词的误用、缺失或多余。感1.(2019·安徽示范性高中皖北协作区高三联考)I got my meal. I thought the food would be dull, what wasn't the case at all. ________________________________________________________________答案:what→which 句意:我原以为饭菜会很乏味,但事实并非如此。在非限制性定语从句中,应该用which指代前文内容,并在从句中作主语,what可以引导宾语从句、表语从句等, 但不能引导定语从句,故将what改为which。 2.(2019·四川遂宁市高三第三次诊断)The police doubted that what he said was true and decided to make a further investigation. ________________________________________________________________答案:that→whether 句意:警方怀疑他所说的是否真实,决定进一步调查。doubt用作动词时,在肯定句中其后通常接whether或if引导的宾语从句,而在否定句或疑问句中通常接that从句。分析本句可知,本句是肯定式,因此后面的宾语从句要用whether,而不是that。故把that改为whether。 3.(2019·四川攀枝花市高三统考)As visitors, we should do something to protect the park after it becomes a huge dustbin. ________________________________________________________________答案:after→before 句意:作为游客,我们应该做些事情来保护公园,以防它变成一个巨大的垃圾箱。before作连词,意为“在……以前;以防”,故把after改为before。 4.(2018·全国卷Ⅰ)At the end of out trip, I told my father that I planned to return every two years, but he agreed. ________________________________________________________________答案:but→and 根据语意可知,此处为并列递进关系,而非转折关系。 5.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ)In fact, he even scared my classmates away during they came over to play or do homework with me. ________________________________________________________________答案:during→when 从句必须由连词来引导,during为介词而非连词,又根据语意可知,此处应用when来引导时间状语从句。 悟 无论并列句还是复合句,首先必须要分清句式结构并理清逻辑,了解各种句式基本用法及固定句式,注意各种句式的用法禁忌和易错点,这是破题的关键所在。 考点素能 一 并列句 1.并列连词及重点句式 (1)并列连词的功能及常用的并列连词 并列连词既可以连接并列的单词或短语,也可以连接并列的分句。在语法填空无提示词的考查中,当两个或两个以上的单词、短语之间没有连词时,一般是填并列连词;当两个或两个以上的句子之间没有连词时,就需要根据逻辑关系来判定用并列连词还是从属关联词。 常见的并列连词有: (2)并列句的重点句式 ●祈使句+and/or+陈述句。 ●sb. was doing sth. when .../sb. was about to do sth. when ... 2.并列句的易错点 (1)并列句本身的易错点 并列句本身的易错点主要集中在三方面:一是逻辑关系不清,误用连词;二是连词的多余,如,although/though不能和but连用,because不能和so连用;三是连词的缺失,要牢记,两个谓语之间或两个分句之间应有一个连词。 (2)并列句与定语从句的区别 并列句与定语从句的主要区别在于:并列句是由and, but等并列连词连接两个简单句,这时就不能再用引导定语从句的关系词了。 [典例1] ①They live in a small house, in front of ________ stands an orange tree. ②They live in a small house, and in front of ________ stands an orange tree. 解析 两句的区别是连词and,句①逗号后为非限制性定语从句,空格处为引导词,表示物,故填which;句②and连接两个并列分句,空格处指代前面分句中的small house,故填it。 (3)并列句与状语从句的区别 并列句是连词连接两个“互不依存的主谓结构”,两者之间是并列关系;而在状语从句中前后两个句子一个是主句,一个是从句,从句是用来修饰主句的。 [典例2] ①________ money is necessary for a happy life, it can't buy happiness. ②Money is necessary for a happy life, ________ it can't buy happiness. 解析 两个题都应该填连词。句①空格所在句子是让步状语从句,故填从属连词Although/Though;句②空格前后是转折关系,是两个并列的简单句,故填并列连词but。 二 定语从句 1.定语从句的引导词和解题步骤 ●定语从句的引导词 ●定语从句的解题步骤 [典例] But my connection with pandas goes back to my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s, ________ I was the first Western TV reporter permitted to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild. 解析 第一步:找出句子中的先行词,并将其还原代入从句中,使从句成为一个完整的句子“in the mid-1980s I was the first Western TV reporter permitted to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild”; 第二步:确定被代入部分在从句中充当的成分。in the mid-1980s在从句中作时间状语,应用关系副词; 第三步:先行词in the mid-1980s指时间,故填when。 2.定语从句的易错点 易错点1 what不能引导定语从句 [典例] (2016·四川高考)The dishes what I cooked were Mom's favorite. 解析 dishes后为定语从句,what不能引导定语从句,此处引导词在从句中作cooked的宾语。故what→that/which或去掉what。 易错点2 that不能引导非限制性定语从句 [典例] (2014·北京高考)I borrowed the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week, that my classmates recommended to me. 解析 分析句子结构可知,先行词为the book,逗号后为非限制性定语从句,且关系词在非限制性定语从句中作宾语,故that→which。 易错点3 定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的选择 [典例] I simply cut the branch ________ the bird was sitting on. 解析 定语从句的先行词为表示地点的branch,但定语从句缺少宾语,故填that/which。注意:此处不能用where。 易错点4 逗号后面的引导词不一定用which [典例] (2019·六安模拟)To realize my dream, I must learn as much as I can to get into a good medical college, which I can make full preparations for the job of a doctor. 解析 逗号后为非限制性定语从句,先行词为a good medical college,引导词在从句中作地点状语,故which→where或which前加in。 易错点5 that与which的误用 下列情况只用that不用which ●当先行词是all, any, anything, everything, nothing等不定代词或被它们修饰时; ●当先行词被形容词的最高级或序数词修饰时; ●当先行词被the only, the very, the just, the same等修饰时; ●当先行词既有人又有物时。 易错点6 非限制性定语从句中as和which的误用 as和which均可用来引导非限制性定语从句,指代主句的内容,但as可位于句首,而which常位于句中;as常用于肯定句,而which可用于否定句;as常用于被动句,而which常用于主动句。此外,as译作“正如,正像”,而which译作“这,这一点”。 The mother tried to persuade her son to give up smoking, which didn't help. 母亲竭力劝说儿子戒烟,但没有作用。 As the old saying goes, “You can't judge a book by its cover”. 正如谚语所言“人不可貌相”。 三 名词性从句 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句这四种从句。 1.名词性从句的引导词 2.名词性从句的易错点 易错点1 that与what的误用 [典例1] (2019·泉州模拟)That you have gained is the result of your hard work. 解析 is前为主语从句,引导词在从句中作宾语,意为“所……的东西”。故That→What。 [典例2] It is cheerful what the local authorities have promised them to shorten the time of obtaining it. 解析 It为形式主语,cheerful后面的句子为主语从句,引导词在从句中不作任何成分也无任何意义。故what→that。 易错点2 that与if/whether的误用 [典例1] I'm glad to hear if you're coming to Sichuan in August. 解析 hear后为宾语从句,句意表示“我听说你要来”,而非“我听说你是否要来”。故if→that或去掉if。 [典例2] (2019·济南模拟)There is no doubt whether it is of great help to their study and future life. 解析 doubt后为同位语从句,此处是一个事实,而不是一个疑问。故whether→that。 易错点3 which与that, what的误用 [典例1] (2019·太原模拟)His promise which he would give away half of the year's income to the disabled turned out a lie. 解析 在名词性从句中that为连接词,不作任何成分,而which为连接代词,需要作成分表示“哪一个”。本句中promise后为同位语从句,后面的引导词在从句中不作任何成分。故which→that。 [典例2] (2019·南昌模拟)All were happy with which they received. 解析 在名词性从句中which和what都为连接代词,但which表示“哪一个”,而what表示“……的事情/东西”。故which→what。 易错点4 if与whether的误用 [典例] (2019·运城模拟)Success partly depends on if you have the patience to do simple things perfectly. 解析 if和whether都可引导名词性从句意为“是否”,但if受到很多限制,例如不能位于句首,介词后的宾语从句不能用if引导,不能跟or not连用等。故if→whether。 易错点5 that, what与连接副词的误用 [典例1] (2019·湖北宜昌示范高中协作体联考)I usually swim in a swimming pool close to that I live. 解析 to后为宾语从句,引导词在从句中需作地点状语,表示“靠近我居住的地方”。故that→where。 [典例2] (2019·庆阳模拟)I hope this town will not change; just keep where it is. 解析 keep后为宾语从句,从句缺少表语,意为“……的样子”应该用连接代词引导。故where→what。 四 状语从句 1.状语从句的分类及常用连词 续表 2.状语从句的易错点 易错点1 逻辑关系不清,导致连词误用 [典例] If I was only a child when I studied in that classroom, I will never forget it. 解析 根据语意“尽管我在那件教室学习时还只是个小孩子,但我永远不会忘记那间教室。”可知,此处应为让步状语从句,故应将If改为Although/Though。 易错点2 受到汉语干扰,导致连词重复 [典例] Every time when he arrived home at the end of the day, we'd greet him at the door. 解析 汉语可以说“每次当……时候”,但英语中every time和when同为连词,不能同时引导时间状语从句,故去掉when。 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.The number of smokers, ________ is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year. 答案:as 2.________ makes the school famous is ________ more than 90% of the students have been admitted to universities. 答案:What; that 3.Sorry to have kept you waiting so long, but it'll still be some time ________ Mr Smith is available. 答案:before 4.One day, the cow was eating grass ________ it began to rain heavily. 答案:when 5.Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears, none of ________ has been proved. 答案:which 6.—We should help and learn from each other as a group. —I can't agree more. ________ you are strong, I am weak. 答案:Where 7.There are as many as five student clubs in our school. You can join ________ interests you most. 答案:whichever 8.Many young people, most of ________ were well-educated, headed for remote regions to chase their dreams. 答案:whom 9.________ we can have clean drinking water lies in ________ effective measures will be taken by the government about water pollution. 答案:Whether; what 10.How can I help them to understand ________ they won't listen to me? 答案:when Ⅱ.单句改错 1.With many cities in China dreadfully blanketed by thick haze, the environmental problem is that Chinese people concern most nowadays. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:that→what 2.Running Man is such a funny reality show that has the gravity to pull you in front of your television. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:that→as 3.When you look at how great effects the climate has on our life, you will agree that it is the most serious problem. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:how→what 4.—What did you think of the trip to Beijing? —I had such a good time that I visited the Great Wall last month. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:that→when 5.My grandmother lived in a generation which women were looked down upon. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:which→when 6.He didn't make that clear when and where the meeting would be held. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:that→it 7.I asked him what was the matter. He smiled and told us about the funny things what had happened in the cinema. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:第二个what→that/which 8.Although the sun was shining, but it wasn't very warm. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:去掉but 9.The naughty boy hid himself behind the door, from which he could hear what we talked about clearly. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:which→where 10.He had a deep voice, which set him apart from others in our small town, he was strong and powerful. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:第二个he前加and Ⅲ.语法填空 (2019·华中师大附中高三检测卷)In the summer of 2015, I was in Finland for an internship. Although I __1__ (read) that Finnish people are reserved and like to stay within their space, I had not expected it to be this: At a bus stop: You are alone in the shade of __2__ stop and that is your space. No one will come __3__ (bother) you. Inside a bus: You enter a bus and see that all the window seats __4__ (occupy). The bus is “full”. You have to stand. Respect that space! This is rather a hard situation, and you really get anxious as to __5__ you should sit. You are scared to shout to the driver to stop the bus: I was running __6__ all my strength to catch the bus and signaled the driver to stop. I entered the bus and all eyes were __7__ (seeming) on me. I had never felt so __8__ (guilt) at anything. In most __9__ (case), when a Finn wants to leave his apartment but his neighbor is in the hallway, he'll just slip away, __10__ (pretend) not to see the neighbor. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇夹叙夹议文。文章讲述了作者在芬兰所受到的文化冲击。 1.had read 考查动词的时态。尽管“我”(之前)读到过芬兰人很保守,他们喜欢待在自己的空间里,但“我”没想过会是这样。此处陈述的是发生在2015年夏天作者去芬兰之前的事,表示过去的过去,所以用过去完成时。 2.the 考查冠词。此处特指前面提到的bus stop,故用定冠词the。 3.to bother 考查非谓语动词。没有人会过来打扰你。分析句子结构可知,此处应用不定式作目的状语。 4.are occupied 考查动词的时态和语态。所有靠窗座位都被占了。see后的that所引导的宾语从句中描述的是芬兰平时的情况,再结合前后句的时态可知,此处应用一般现在时;且seats与occupy “使用,占用”是被动关系,故用被动语态。 5.where 考查名词性从句的连接词。至于你应该坐在哪儿,你真的会感到焦虑的。分析句子结构可知,介词to后为宾语从句,设空处在此引导宾语从句,且在从句中作地点状语,故填where。 6.with 考查介词。“我”用尽全身力气跑着赶公共汽车。with “使用”,with all one's strength “用尽全力”。 7.seemingly 考查词性转换。“我”上了公共汽车,似乎所有的目光都在注视着“我”。空处修饰谓语动词,应用副词seemingly。 8.guilty 考查词性转换。作者从来没有感到如此内疚过。feel是系动词,其后应接形容词作表语,故填guilty。 9.cases 考查名词。case作“事例,实例”讲时是可数名词,空前有修饰词most,故用case的复数形式。 10.pretending 考查非谓语动词。在大多数情况下,当一个芬兰人想离开他的公寓而他的邻居在走廊时,他就会溜走,假装没有看见邻居。主句有谓语动词,且空前无连词,故空处应用非谓语动词作状语,he与pretend之间是主动关系,故用现在分词作状语。 Ⅳ.短文改错 (2019·江西重点中学联考)Last night I was at a coffee shop. There was a wonderfully music show. As I got up to get a cup of coffee and a cookie, I notice a middle-aged woman near me. Clearly, she had caught in a fire of some kind. His face was so badly burned that she looked very tight. I thought about how brave she was to come out but appeared in public. When I returned back to my seat, I turned towards the woman and said, “Isn't he a wonderful performers?” And I gave her the largest smile I was able to give. To my delighted, she looked right at me and gave me a huge smile for return. It was her smile which made her whole face light up last night. She was beautiful. 答案: Last night I was a coffee shop. There was a music show. As I got up to get a cup of coffee and a cookie, I a middle-aged woman near me. Clearly, she had caught in a fire of some kind. face was so badly burned that she looked very tight. I thought about how brave she was to come out appeared in public. When I returned eq \o(,\s\do15(⑦)) to my seat, I turned towards the woman and said, “Isn't he a wonderful ?” And I gave her the largest smile I was able to give. To my , she looked right at me and gave me a huge smile for return. It was her smile made her whole face light up last night. She was beautiful. PAGE - 1 - (共76张PPT) 第3讲  并列句和复合句 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 答案 解析

  • ID:4-6784870 安徽省合肥市2020届高三第一次教学质量检测 英语试题(扫描版无听力音频和文字材料)

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  • ID:4-6782988 2020高考英语大二轮复习冲刺经典专题语法部分专题三基础点课时课件(打包5套)

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    (共56张PPT) 第1讲  名词 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 本课结束 答案 (共53张PPT) 第2讲  冠词 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 答案 (共53张PPT) 第3讲  形容词和副词 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 本课结束 答案 (共46张PPT) 第4讲  代词 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 本课结束 答案 (共53张PPT) 第5讲  介词 考点感悟 考点素能 过关检测 本课结束 答案

  • ID:4-6782984 2020高考英语大二轮复习冲刺经典专题语法部分专题三基础点课时教学案(打包5套)

    高中英语/高考专区/二轮专题/语法专题/语法综合

    第1讲 名词 解答有关名词的题目时,一定要注意名词前的修饰成分,如数词、量词常修饰可数名词复数,也要注意修饰不可数名词的词或短语等,以用来判断其应为不可数名词还是可数名词的单复数形式,有时还要结合语境分析句子成分来判断是否需要作主语、宾语、表语或定语的名词。 考点感悟 语法填空 短文改错 语法填空对名词的考查主要是名词的单复数和所有格,以及所给提示词(动词、形容词等)转换为名词的适当形式。感 1.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)My name is Mireya Mayor. I'm a ________ (science) who studies animals such as apes and monkeys.答案:scientist 根据语境可知,作者是一名科学家,故填scientist “科学家”。 2.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)She has turned down several ________ (invitation) to star at shows in order to concentrate on her studies.答案:invitations “邀请”为可数名词,其前有several修饰,故应填其名词复数形式。悟1.分析句子成分 如果词性不需要改变,则一般考查所给名词的复数形式;如果作定语表示“……的”,则一般考查名词所有格。 2.注意单复数 如果为不可数名词,则没有复数形式;如果为可数名词,除根据上下文语境之外,还可通过限定词信息来判断:①不定冠词a, an后用名词单数形式;②有these,those, several, many, both,all, different, a few等词修饰时用名词复数形式;③其前有one of时用名词复数形式;④如作主语,要注意主谓一致。即,谓语动词为单数则填名词单数形式,谓语动词为复数则填名词复数形式。 短文改错对名词的考查重点是名词的单复数、不可数名词、名词与其他词类的词性等方面的误用。感 1.(2019·全国卷Ⅰ)All the football player on the playground cheered loudly ... ________________________________________________________________答案:player→players 根据前面的all可知,player应用复数形式players。 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅰ)Last winter when I went there again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. ________________________________________________________________答案:chicken→chickens dozens of 用来修饰可数名词复数。悟 1.可数名词单复数的误用 可根据限定语来判断,高考时主要集中在错把复数用作单数。 2.可数名词与不可数名词的误用 ①不可数名词没有复数形式,因此熟记不可数名词是解题关键;②有些词既可用作可数名词也可用作不可数名词,应注意其具体语境。 3.名词的所有格 有些名词常常漏掉名词所有格,在表示“……的”时常用名词所有格。 4.名词与形容词或动词的误用 应结合语境分析句子成分,由所充当的句子成分判断词性的正误。①名词一般作主语、宾语、表语或定语;②作表语时,与主语构成同位关系一般用名词,形容词一般是对主语的描述;③在冠词、所有格或介词后一般用名词。 考点素能 一 名词复数变化规律 1.规则名词变复数的6种形式 (1)一般情况下,在词尾直接加-s:book→books, mouth→mouths, house→houses, girl→girls (2)以-s, -x, -ch, -sh结尾的名词,在词尾加-es:glass→glasses, box→boxes, match→matches, brush→brushes (3)以辅音字母+y结尾的名词,变y为i再加-es:city→cities, country→countries, party→parties, factory→factories (4)以元音字母+y结尾的名词,在词尾直接加-s:holiday→holidays, monkey→monkeys (5)以o结尾的名词常在词尾加-s:radio→radios, zoo→zoos, piano→pianos, kilo→kilos, photo→photos;加-es的有:hero→heroes, Negro→Negroes, tomato→tomatoes, potato→potatoes (6)以-f, -fe结尾的名词 ①少数直接加-s:roof→roofs, belief→beliefs ②一般以-f或-fe结尾的名词要变f或fe为v再加-es:self→selves, life→lives, thief→thieves, wife→wives, knife→knives, leaf→leaves, shelf→shelves, wolf→wolves, half→halves 2.不规则名词变复数的常见形式 (1)单复数同形:deer, sheep, means, series, Chinese, Swiss, aircraft, spacecraft (2)变内部元音:foot→feet, tooth→teeth, man→men, woman→women (3)外来名词:medium→media 媒体, phenomenon→phenomena 现象, analysis→analyses 分析 二 常见的不可数名词 一般来说,物质名词和抽象名词是不可数的,因此没有复数形式,一般也不能用a或an修饰。 通常只用作不可数名词的有:milk, music, homework, housework, weather, news, butter, information, knowledge, bread, advice, progress, orange (橙汁), equipment, meat, fun, luggage, luck, work (工作), traffic, furniture, wealth, word (消息), room (空间), man (人类)等。 三 名词构词法(名词后缀) 1.动词变名词的后缀 2.形容词变名词的后缀 3.表示“人”的后缀 四 区分名词或名词所有格作定语 1.名词作定语往往说明其名词的材料、用途、时间、地点、内容、类别等 cotton goods 棉织品 bus driver 公交车司机 Beijing University 北京大学 evening suit 晚礼服 weather forecast 天气预报 2.名词所有格作定语往往表示所属关系 the students' books 学生们的书 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.Two ________ (German) were seen enter the building an hour ago. 答案:Germans 2.Whoever chooses to be happy must help others to find ________ (happy), for the welfare of each is bound up with the welfare of all. 答案:happiness 3.The ________ (soldier) heroic deed earned him a medal. 答案:soldier's 4.We have two ________ (week) vacation for Christmas. 答案:weeks' 5.Without the proper treatment, minor ________ (injury) or burns could lead to more suffering and even loss of lives. 答案:injuries 6.The stores were overrun with rats and ________ (mouse). 答案:mice 7.She was at her ________ (dentist) for two hours yesterday. 答案:dentist's 8.You are working too hard. You'd better keep a balance between work and ________ (relax). 答案:relaxation 9.She had views quite different from her ________ (father). 答案:father's 10.I haven't seen Sara since she was a little girl, and she has changed beyond ________ (recognize). 答案:recognition Ⅱ.单句改错 1.Often she buys some toy for him to play with, especially on his birthday. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:toy→toys 2.During the next few days, we visited the world-famous sight, such as the Great Wall, the Summer Palace. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:sight→sights 3.While I was walking on my way to school, I noticed two cleaner sweeping the street. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:cleaner→cleaners 4.They have probably heard some horrible stories about other kid. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:kid→kids 5.We were told about the enemy defeat by our forces. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:enemy→enemy's 6.It's one of the most beautiful view that I've ever seen in China. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:view→views 7.My favorite sport is badminton, which brings me much happy. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:happy→happiness 8.I think you can make it if you follow the advices below. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:advices→advice 9.We need to take action to develop a sound system that advocates good behavior and keeps all necessary requirements in minds. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:minds→mind 10.Billy and I are good friends. I have some pictures of Billy's. Look at this one. How sweet he is smiling. ________________________________________________________________ 答案:Billy's→Billy Ⅲ.语法填空 Homecoming is the tradition of welcoming back former students and celebrating a school's __1__ (exist) in the United States. People, towns, high schools, and colleges come together, usually in late September or early October, to welcome back alumni (校友) and former residents. It __2__ (build) around a central event, such as a banquet and, most often, a game of football, or, __3__ occasion, basketball, ice hockey or soccer. When celebrated by schools, the activities vary widely. However, they usually consist of a football game, activities for students and alumni, a parade __4__ (feature) the school's marching band and sports teams, and the coronation (加冕) of __5__ (it) Homecoming Queen, or Homecoming King. A dance commonly follows the game on the day after the game. __6__ (attach) to a football game, Homecoming traditionally occurs on the team's return from the longest road trip of the season, the game, __7__ it is football or another sport, will typically include the home team playing a __8__ (considerable) weaker opponent. The game is supposed to be __9__ easy win and thus weaker schools will sometimes play __10__ (low) division schools. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了有关美国返校节的内容。 1.existence 考查名词。分析句子结构可知,空处作celebrating的宾语,应用所给词的名词形式。existence表示“存在”。 2.is built 考查动词的时态和语态。返校节以一个中心事件为基础。此处介绍的是通常的客观情况,故用一般现在时;主语It指代上文的Homecoming,它和build之间为动宾关系,此处要用被动语态。 3.on 考查介词。on occasion “偶尔,有时”,与上文中的most often相对应。 4.featuring 考查非谓语动词。feature作动词,意为“以……为特色”,与a parade存在逻辑上的主谓关系,应使用现在分词作后置定语。 5.its 考查代词。本题看似简单,但是要弄清楚空处指代的对象比较难,因为空前出现了the school, marching band, sports teams, the coronation。但是根据句意“然而,活动通常包括足球比赛……以学校的乐队、运动队伍为特色的游行和返校节皇后或国王的加冕”可知,返校节皇后或国王应该是学校的,空处指代“学校的”,故填its。 6.Attached 考查非谓语动词。attach与其逻辑主语Homecoming之间为动宾关系,故应用过去分词形式作状语。 7.whether 考查状语从句。不管是足球还是另外的运动,比赛通常包括……。根据后面的or可知,此处用whether “不管……(还是”)引起让步状语从句。 8.considerably 考查词性转换。此处表示“弱得相当多的对手”,修饰形容词应用副词。 9.an 考查冠词。win作名词表示“(在比赛、竞赛中的)胜利”时,通常为可数名词,且easy的首字母读音以元音音素开头,故填an。 10.lower 考查形容词比较级。根据句意以及上文中的“weaker schools”可知,此处应使用比较级。 Ⅳ.短文改错 In order to save the planet or raise public awareness of environmental issues, a “Used Book Donation Campaign” will carried out in our school next month. Any used book we no longer need it can be donated. All the collected book will be donated to some children who lived in poor mountainous areas of West China. I'm sure this campaign will have a great effect on everyone involving. On the one hand, we can play a important part in recycling resources for the protection of the environment. On the other hand, some children will benefit from those used books great. That's why it's difficult for them to have access from books. 答案: In order to save the planet raise public awareness of environmental issues, a “Used Book Donation Campaign” will carried out in our school next month. Any used book we no longer need eq \o(,\s\do15(③)) can be donated. All the collected will be donated to some children who in poor mountainous areas of West China. I'm sure this campaign will have a great effect on everyone . On the one hand, we can play important part in recycling resources for the protection of the environment. On the other hand, some children will benefit from those used books . That's it's difficult for them to have access books. PAGE - 1 - 第2讲 冠词 在语法填空中解答有关冠词的题目时,要明确设空处是特指还是泛指?还要知晓a与an的区别?;在短文改错中,除了判断泛指或特指外,还要注意单数可数名词前必须有冠词而不可数名词或可数名词复数前除特指时用定冠词the外,一般不用冠词,同时对含有冠词的固定搭配也应熟练掌握。 考点感悟 语法填空 语法填空对冠词的考查主要是不定冠词和定冠词的基本用法及固定搭配。 感1.(2019·山西太原五中高三下学期)While no everyone will have pondered (思索) the subject while staring out of the window during ________ flight, the question as to why aeroplanes have circular windows rather than square ones is interesting. 答案:a 此处用不定冠词来表示泛指一类事情,故答案为a。 2.(2019·湖北黄冈高三联考)Han Haihua described ________ form of bullfighting he teaches as the explosive power of hard “qigong”, saying it combines the skill and speed of martial arts with traditional wrestling moves. 答案:the 分析句子可知,特指Han Haihua所教的斗牛形式,所以用定冠词the表示特指。故填the。 3.(2019·福建厦门高三下学期质检)With ________ series of well?planned and tourist?friendly cultural activities, the Palace Museum is now on a campaign to make traditional Chinese culture more accessible to the general public. 答案:a 表示“一系列的……”应用a series of ...,故该空填冠词a。 4.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for ________ while, exercising, or doing something you enjoy. 答案:a for a while “一会儿”为固定搭配。 5.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)The adobe dwellings (土坯房) built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ________ most modern of architects and engineers. 答案:the 最高级前应用定冠词the。 悟1.学会判断是否填冠词 ①如果空格后的名词或“形容词+名词”前没有形容词性物主代词、不定代词、名词所有格或指示代词等限定词,则很可能填冠词;②如果空格及后面的名词可翻译成“一”的概念,一般填a/an,如果翻译成“这/那”的概念,一般填the;③如果名词后有of短语、不定式、分词或从句等作定语,则很可能填the。 2.熟记含冠词的固定搭配 参见后文“考点素能三”中的内容。 短文改错 短文改错中主要考查不定冠词a和an及不定冠词与定冠词的错用、冠词的缺失与多余,尤其要注意固定搭配。 感1.(2019·安徽示范性高中皖北协作区高三联考)On third day, our bus pulled into a motorway service station. _____________________ 答案:third前加the 表示顺序的序数词前需加定冠词,故在third前加the。 2.(2019·四川遂宁市高三第三次诊断)A car ran into a truck and fortunately, nobody got injured. Who will be responsible for an accident is still under investigation. _____________________ 答案:an→the 本句中是特指这次“一辆小汽车撞上了一辆卡车”的事故,因此要用特指,而不是泛指,故把an改为the。 3.(2019·广东省湛江市高三调研)Half a hour later, I managed to find the correct answer. _____________________ 答案:a→an hour首字母的发音为元音音素。故将a改为an。 4.(2016·全国卷Ⅲ)At the first, I thought I knew everything and could make decisions by myself. _____________________ 答案:去掉the at first意为“起初,一开始”,为固定短语。 悟1.要知晓何为泛指何为特指 参见后文“考点素能一”中所讲。 2.冠词的错用 表示泛指时用不定冠词(元音音素前用an,辅音音素前用a),表示特指时用定冠词the。 3.单数可数名词前冠词的缺失 一般来说单数可数名词前应有适当的冠词,然后可根据泛指、特指去判断应用何冠词。 4.冠词的多余 一看到不可数名词或可数名词复数表泛指应考虑到是否多用了冠词。 5.两种基础要打牢 一是定冠词the的常用情况,二是含有定冠词、不定冠词及零冠词的固定短语,这些都是基础,记住才是硬道理。 考点素能 一 明确冠词的泛指与特指 1.泛指:不定冠词用在首次提到的或不限定的单数可数名词前表泛指。 2.特指:①用在上文提到的人或物前;②用在被限制性修饰语加以限定的人或物前;③用在双方默认的特定的人或物前。 二 掌握必用定冠词的情况 1.the用在最高级或序数词前面或由only, very, same等修饰的名词前面。 Is this the first time you have visited Qingdao? 这是你第一次游览青岛吗? China is one of the richest countries in natural resources in the world. 在自然资源方面,中国是世界上最富有的国家之一。 2.the用在表示姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人或夫妻俩;或用于形容词或分词前,表示一类人或物。 the wounded 伤员 the rich 富人 The Greens are on holiday now. 格林一家(夫妇)现在正在度假。 3.the用在年代、朝代及逢十的数词(表示某个年代)前。 the Tang Dynasty 唐朝 in the 1990's 在20世纪90年代 4.the与形容词或副词的比较级连用,一般用于以下两种情况: ①用于“the+比较级,the+比较级”结构中,表示“越……越……”之意。 The more we do for the people, the happier we'll be. 我们为人民做得越多就越幸福。 ②用在“the+比较级+of the two”结构中,表示“两个中较……的一个”。 She is the taller of the two girls. 她是两个女孩子中个子较高的那一个。 5.用于固定结构“动词+sb.+介词+the+身体某一部位”中。 An apple fell from the tree and hit him on the head. 一个苹果从树上落下,砸在了他的头上。 6.用在表示度量单位的名词前,表示“每一”。如by the hour/day/week/year/dozen/yard/ton/kilo,但size/weight/ time这类名词跟by连用时不加定冠词。 We got paid by the month. 我们按月计酬。 Meat is sold by weight. 肉按重量出售。 三 熟记常考固定搭配 1.含不定冠词的固定搭配 as a result 因此 as a rule 通常 as a whole 总体上 at a loss 不知所措 in a hurry 匆忙 in a word 总之 pay a visit to 拜访 put an end to 结束 once in a while 偶尔 once upon a time 从前 all of a sudden 突然 be on a diet 节食 in a short while 不久 have/catch a cold 感冒 make a living 谋生 have/take a rest 休息 as a matter of fact 事实上 in a sense 在某种意义上 in a way 在某种程度上 keep an eye on 照看,留意 have a gift for 在某方面有天赋 give sb. a lift 让某人搭便车 2.含定冠词的固定搭配 in the end 最后 in the way 挡道 in the distance 在远处 by the way 顺便说一下 on the whole 总的来说 at the same time 同时 to tell the truth 说实话 for the time being 暂时 on the spot 在现场 not in the least 一点也不 the other day 前几天 take the place of 代替 at the moment 此刻,目前 to the point 切题 make the most/best of充分利用 on the other hand 另一方面 in the middle of 在……中间 3.含零冠词的固定搭配 at present 目前 take part in 参加 in peace 平静 by chance/accident 碰巧 on purpose 故意 lose heart 灰心 out of control 失控 out of work 失业 ahead of time 提前 in advance 提前 by law 根据法律 by mistake 由于差错 under repair 处于维修中 day and night 整日整夜 at risk 有危险 in danger 处于危险之中 from morning till night 从早到晚 on second thoughts 再想一想 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.If your parents see that you have ________ high sense of responsibility, they will give you the right to do what you want to do. 答案:a 2.He became one of ________ most popular stars of American television. 答案:the 3.You can always keep yourself interested and it can help you have ________ enjoyable time if you like reading. 答案:an 4.________ Smiths you are looking for no longer live here. 答案:The 5.Jane's grandmother had wanted to write ________ children's book for many years, but one thing or another always got in ________ way. 答案:a; the 6.I just heard ________ bank where Dora works was robbed by ________ gunman wearing a mask. 答案:the; a 7.The parents were shocked by ________ news that their son need ________ operation on his knee. 答案:the; an 8.He was driving at 50 miles ________ hour. 答案:an 9.The education of ________ young is always a serious topic. 答案:the 10.—Have you listened to ________ weather forecast, Linda? —Yes. It says that there will be a heavy rain this weekend. 答案:the Ⅱ.单句改错 1.An eighteenth century was the golden age of the novel. _____________________ 答案:An→The 2.We were touched by such a act of kindness on a hot day. _____________________ 答案:第一个a→an 3.In the Spring Festival, my family and I went to Beijing and had different holiday. _____________________ 答案:different前加a 4.I was walking to school this morning when I caught a sight of an old woman with a walking stick lying on the ground. _____________________ 答案:去掉sight前的a 5.Finally, I accepted the offer of a 80-year-old peasant woman who lived alone in a little house. _____________________ 答案:第一个a→an 6.A Chinese people are industrious and brave. _____________________ 答案:A→The 7.Thank you for sending us fresh vegetables of many kinds, and you have offered great service. _____________________ 答案:great前加a 8.We all need the clean world to live in, so we should do something to stop the pollution. _____________________ 答案:第一个the→a 9.My aunt, as a easy-going old lady, did give us a surprise when she lost her temper at the family party yesterday. _____________________ 答案:a→an 10.The report said that a bus went out of control on a highway the south of the city and rushed into a river. _____________________ 答案:去掉south前的the Ⅲ.语法填空 That Beijing, together with Zhangjiakou, succeeded in __1__ (get) the chance to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games, speeds up the development of Zhangjiakou City. Word came __2__ the Beijing-Zhangjiakou high-speed railway, __3__ (locate) in North China, is currently under construction, and __4__ (expect) to be completed by 2020 in preparation for the cities to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Starting from Beijing North Railway Station, heading west through the Great Wall three times in the capital's territory, the project is a big challenge, __5__ designers say the explosions needed to dig the tunnels will not have an impact on the structure. The line has a __6__ (long) of 174 km as a double-tracked passenger dedicated line, with ten stations situated along its route. Having a __7__ (totally) investment of 31.17 billion yuan ($5 billion), the trip between the two cities will only take 40 minutes, with the train __8__ (travel) at an average of 250 km/h. According to the plan, the high-speed railway will build two branch lines—one is to Yanqing Station and the other __9__ Taizicheng of Chongli, __10__ the Olympic village lies. The full railway, which includes 70-kilometer section through Beijing, will be completed in four and a half years. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇记叙文,主要讲述北京和张家口将在2022年联手举办冬奥会,因此一条从北京到张家口的高速铁路预计将在2020年竣工。 1.getting 考查固定搭配。succeed in doing sth. “成功做成某事”,为固定搭配,故填getting。 2.that 考查连接词。word came that ... “消息传来……”,为固定搭配,此处是that引导的同位语从句,故填that。 3.located 考查非谓语动词。be located in “坐落在……”,为固定搭配,此处是过去分词作定语,故填located。 4.is expected 考查动词的时态和语态。句意:北京到张家口的高速铁路预计在2020年完成。根据句意可知用一般现在时的被动语态,故填is expected。 5.but 考查连词。根据句意可知此处表示转折,故填but。 6.length 考查词性转换。此处表示“长度”,故填long的名词形式length。 7.total 考查词性转换。形容词修饰名词,故填total。 8.travel(l)ing 考查非谓语动词。此处是with的复合结构,表示主动,故填travel(l)ing。 9.to 考查介词。此处表示“到……”,故填to。 10.where 考查定语从句的引导词。此处Taizicheng of Chongli为先行词,关系词在后面的定语从句中作地点状语,故填where。 Ⅳ.短文改错 Dear friends, It is a great honor to share with you my experience in making English speeches. To tell a truth, my spoken English used to be a big headache for me. Due to my terrible pronunciation, I often got misunderstood or even laughed by others. I never succeed in speech competitions. Therefore, I refused to give up. Every day I spent two hours listen to English programs to improve my oral skills. To my joy, my effort was finally paid off. I made steadily progress and managed to win prizes in some speech competition. So problems can help us grow if we deal with it bravely and properly. This is which I've learned from my experience. 答案: Dear friends, It is a great honor to share with you my experience in making English speeches. To tell truth, my spoken English used to be a big headache for me. Due to my terrible pronunciation, I often got misunderstood or even laughed by others. I never in speech competitions. , I refused to give up. Every day I spent two hours to English programs to improve my oral skills. To my joy, my effort finally paid off. I made progress and managed to win prizes in some speech . So problems can help us grow if we deal with bravely and properly. This is I've learned from my experience. PAGE - 1 - 第3讲 形容词和副词 形容词和副词为高考的必考点,从功能上来说,形容词主要用来修饰名词和代词,作定语或表语,而副词主要用来修饰动词、形容词、副词、介词短语或整个句子,作状语。在语法填空和短文改错中形容词和副词的比较等级及形容词和副词之间的转化为重点考查方向。 考点感悟 语法填空 语法填空中主要考查形容词作定语或表语、形容词和副词的比较等级、形容词和副词的词性转换等。 感1.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)They also shared with us many ________ (tradition) stories about Hawaii that were ________ (huge) popular with tourists. 答案:traditional; hugely 所填词修饰名词stories,故应用tradition的形容词形式traditional;第二空所填词修饰形容词popular,故应用huge的副词形式hugely。 2.(2019·全国卷Ⅱ)We are so proud of her. It's ________ (wonder). 答案:wonderful 系动词is后跟形容词作表语。 3.(2019·浙江宁波高三模拟)Gaokao, which is held across China in June, is ________ (increase) accepted by universities in Australia, the US, Canada and mainland Europe. 答案:increasingly 句意:6月初在中国各地举行的高考,逐渐地被澳大利亚、美国、加拿大和欧洲大陆的大学所接受。此处accepted是动词,由副词来修饰。increasingly “逐渐地,越来越多地”。 4.(2018·浙江高考)There could be an even ________ (high) cost on your health. 答案:higher 根据空前的even可知应用比较级。 悟1.学会判断是否用比较等级 当所给的提示词为形容词或副词,分析句子成分后,发现词性不需要改变,就很可能填该词的比较级或最高级:暗示比较意义、有比较结构或有比较级修饰词时要用比较级;三者、三者以上进行比较或有修饰最高级的词时用最高级。 2.学会判断是否为词性转化 此种类型的解题关键在于要学会分析所给提示词在句子中应作的成分:如果作定语、表语或补足语,那么要填形容词(此时给的提示词通常为名词或动词);如果作状语,那么就要填副词(此时所给提示词通常为形容词)。 短文改错 短文改错中主要考查形容词和副词的比较等级、它们本身或它们之间的错用的情况。 感1.(2019·湖南长沙雅礼中学高三一模)This was the better thing I could have done. _____________________ 答案:better→best 根据the再结合句意可知,句子用最高级。 2.(2019·黑龙江大庆一中高三模拟)They just smiled and made friend gestures. _____________________ 答案:friend→friendly gesture为名词,需要形容词修饰,故friend改为friendly。 3.(2019·河南郑州高三质量预测)Secondly, we'd better try our best to study hard and build a solid foundation, and then we'll feel confidence of winning by then. _____________________ 答案:confidence→confident 此处应用形容词作系动词feel的表语。 4.(2019·广东六校高三联考)I stood there for five minutes without saying anything, which made me feel very embarrassing. _____________________ 答案:embarrassing→embarrassed -ed形容词说明人的感受,意为“感到……的”,-ing形容词描述人或事物本身具有的特征,意为“令人……的”,此处说明主语的感受,故用-ed形式的形容词。 5.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)I was afraid to speak in front of a larger group of people. _____________________ 答案:larger→large 根据语意判断此处并无比较意义,应用形容词的原级。 悟1.通过判断句子成分确定词性误用 一定要知道形容词和副词分别可以修饰什么(参左栏 2,这是解题非常有效的手段) 2.牢记易混的形容词和副词 高考中常将意近意反或意重、形近或相像的易混词作为考查方向,因此要牢记才行(参考考点素能三)。 考点素能 一 使用比较级的常见情况 1.直接型 (1)根据比较等级的句式判断,如果后面有than就用比较级。 (2)当空格前有表示程度的词如much, far, still, even, rather, a little, a bit, a lot, a great deal等标志性词汇时,需填比较级。 2.间接型 (1)要根据隐含的信息做出判断。 (2)有时候比较级结构中并不出现than和有表示程度的词,而是根据语境判断出用比较级。 3.“the+比较级 ... the+比较级 ...”表示“越……越……” 4.“否定词+比较级”表示最高级含义 Mr Stevenson is great to work for—I really couldn't ask for a better boss. 为斯蒂文森先生工作感觉非常好,我真的找不到比他更好的老板了。 注意:①比较级的重复:如果形容词或副词后面加了-er,前面就不能再用more;②固定结构中比较级的应用,如what's more, what's worse等。 二 使用最高级的常见情况 (1)表达在某个范围内“最……”时,使用“the+形容词/副词的最高级+比较范围”结构。表示范围的标志词有in, of, among等。 (2)当空格前有the second/third ..., one of ... 等词时,需填最高级。 (3)形容词最高级前的修饰语通常有序数词以及by far, almost, nearly等。 注意:有些词本身就含有最高级的含义,不可再用最高级,如favorite, wonderful, exhausted等。 三 易用错的形容词和副词 1.以-ly结尾的形容词 如friendly, lovely, lively, lonely, elderly, deadly等。 2.形近的词 如close (通常指距离上的靠近)→closely (仔细地;接近地);hard (努力地,费力地)→ hardly (几乎不);most (最,非常)→ mostly (一般地,主要地)等。 3.意近、意反或意重的词 如many和much都表示很多,但前者修饰可数名词复数,而后者修饰不可数名词;ago和before都表示“以前”,但前者所指的时间从现在算起,常用一般过去时,而后者所指的时间从过去算起,常用于过去完成时;however和therefore,前者表示转折,而后者表示因果,两者正相反;so和very表达同一含义,故不能同时使用。 4.相像的词 如表示宽(wide)、高(high)、深(deep)、慢(slow)等词,本身就为副词,加上-ly还是副词,但前者表示具体,后者表示抽象。 5.以-ed和-ing结尾的形容词的区别 解决此类问题一要看语境是“令人……的(-ing)”还是“感到……的(-ed)”,二要看说明的是性质特征(-ing)还是感受(-ed)。 四 常见形容词和副词的变化规律 1.动词、名词变形容词的常见后缀 ①-al 如music(al), origin(al), person(al), form(al), nation(al), centre(central), nature(natural) ②-ful 如hope(ful), harm(ful), help(ful), peace(ful), care(ful), use(ful) ③-able 如accept(able), comfort(able), fashion(able), suit(able), reason(able) ④-ible 如access(ible), horror(horrible), terror(terrible) ⑤-ive 如act(ive), effect(ive), attract(ive), impress(ive), instruct(ive), expense(expensive) ⑥-ous 如continue(continuous), anxiety(anxious), caution(cautious), curiosity(curious), humor(humorous) ⑦-y 如health(y), wealth(y), dirt(y), rain(y), cloud(y), sun(ny), taste(tasty) ⑧-ic 如science(scientific), economy(economic), history(historic) ⑨-some/-ish/-ary/-ern 如tire(some), trouble(some), fool(ish), self(ish), imagine(imaginary), east(ern) ⑩-ed/-ing这类词一般为表示心理、表情的词,如scare, confuse, puzzle, worry, excite, bore, surprise, convince, satisfy,以-e结尾直接加d或将e去掉再加-ing,以-y结尾则直接加-ing或把y变i再加-ed,它们用法区别参考上文“三”中的第5条即可。 2.形容词变副词的规则 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.As they couldn't play outdoors, they were ________ (happy), and some even got into fights from time to time. 答案:unhappy 2.We can start the habit by writing learning summaries and remembering to record something ________ (impress) and meaningful. 答案:impressive 3.And if he wants to live ________ (comfort), he has to work hard. 答案:comfortably 4.You haven't changed at all—you still look ________ (exact) the same as before. 答案:exactly 5.Parents and teachers always think students should spend more time on their studies, but students themselves think ________ (different). 答案:differently 6.I think you'll get a bit ________ (fat) by then. By the way, is there anything I can do for you? 答案:fatter 7.Of all the cities in the world, one of the top six ________ (health) cities is Copenhagen, Denmark. 答案:healthiest 8.Just imagine how ________ (terrible) shy I was the moment I thought of that with so many eyes fixed upon me. 答案:terribly 9.The sun is a lot ________ (big) and ________ (bright) than the moon. 答案:bigger; brighter 10.There are only a third ________ many trees as ten years ago on the hill. 答案:as Ⅱ.单句改错 1.I am real proud of my brother. _____________________ 答案:real→really 2.Similar, people prefer movies that reflect their mood. _____________________ 答案:Similar→Similarly 3.While taking exams, we'd better plan our time careful. _____________________ 答案:careful→carefully 4.It was the first time that I had played on the stage in front of such many people. _____________________ 答案:such→so 5.Anxious and tiring all day, he carried that heavy jewelry, afraid of being robbed or murdered. _____________________ 答案:tiring→tired 6.I am deep moved by what he has done for me in recent years. _____________________ 答案:deep→deeply 7.That sounds wonderfully as collecting stamps is my hobby as well. _____________________ 答案:wonderfully→wonderful 8.I have finally made up my mind to go to America for farther study after graduation. _____________________ 答案:farther→further 9.This book isn't as cheaper as that one. _____________________ 答案:cheaper→cheap 10.The Yellow River is the second longer river in China. _____________________ 答案:longer→longest Ⅲ.语法填空 The novel behind the popular television drama In the Name of People has sold out in bookstores, __1__ online and hard copies, around the nation. __2__ (write) by Zhou Meisen and published in January, the 54-chapter novel __3__ (focus) on Chinese politics and officialdom (官僚作风) in the ongoing campaign against corruption (腐败). Audiences to the television version that consists of 55 episodes, have been drawn __4__ (watch) the series by the tension, drama and struggle of characters featured. Since the TV __5__ (adapt) has been a slow release, many viewers have bought a copy of the __6__ (origin) book to get ahead. According to Baidu Index, a majority of readers are between 25 and 39, and those __7__ (age) 30 to 39 cover 51 percent of the readership. Yet those __8__ haven't got the book may find __9__ difficult to buy the paper copy at present. And popularity of the book is __10__ many sellers' expectation. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇说明文,文章介绍了电视剧《人民的名义》的热播导致原版书脱销。 1.both 考查代词。此处是both ... and ...用法,表示“二者都……”,故填both。 2.Written 考查非谓语动词。句中主语the 54-chapter novel和动词write之间是被动关系,用过去分词作状语,故填Written。 3.focuses 考查动词的时态。此处指In the Name of People这本书所描述的客观事实,用一般现在时,故填focuses。 4.to watch 考查非谓语动词。句意:观众们被这部55集的电视剧吸引,来观看该剧的紧张气氛、戏剧和人物之间的斗争。句中用不定式作目的状语,故填to watch。 5.adaption 考查词性转换。此处是名词形式作主语,指电视改编本,故填adaption。 6.original 考查词性转换。此处用形容词修饰名词book,故填original。 7.aged 考查词性转换。aged 30 to 39指30到39岁的人,此处aged是形容词修饰those,意为“……岁的”,故填aged。 8.who 考查定语从句的引导词。句中包含定语从句,先行词是those指人,在定语从句中作主语,用关系代词引导,故填who。 9.it 考查代词。句中it作动词find的形式宾语,difficult是宾补,不定式to buy the paper copy at present作真正的宾语,故填it。 10.beyond 考查介词。此处指这本书比销售者预想的更畅销,beyond sb.'s expectation “出乎某人的预料”,故填beyond。 Ⅳ.短文改错 (2019·郑州一中高三模拟)Last Saturday I saw the worse weather in years. In the morning, the sun was completely blocked so that I could see everything clearly. I stayed at home, look outside. Suddenly, a flash of lightning came into the sight. Seconds later, the noise of thunder broke the silent. Then a strong wind starts to blow into my room. Pieces of paper on my desk was blown high into the air and some flew out the open window. I was about to close the window while big drops of rain began to fall. It rained hardly and nearly broke my window. What bad weather! I hate it because I can't go out to play. 答案: Last Saturday I saw the weather in years. In the morning, the sun was completely blocked so that I could see clearly. I stayed at home, outside. Suddenly, a flash of lightning came into sight. Seconds later, the noise of thunder broke the . Then a strong wind to blow into my room. Pieces of paper on my desk blown high into the air and some flew out the open window. I was about to close the window big drops of rain began to fall. It rained and nearly broke my window. What bad weather! I hate it because I can't go out to play. PAGE - 1 - 第4讲 代词 近几年高考在代词上主要考查其基本用法,相对比较简单。考生在解题时要根据语意语境去判断人称和数,要认真阅读上下文,看清指代对象,并注意分析其成分以确定代词的格。未来高考对代词的考查仍将侧重其基本用法,且会加强语境的复杂性。 考点感悟 语法填空 语法填空中对代词的考查侧重于对人称代词、物主代词、反身代词及替代词和it的考查。 感1.(2019·浙江杭州外国语学校高三月考)________ (it) is difficult to figure out where the miners are and reach them in time. 答案:It 此处it是形式主语,动词不定式作真正的主语,故答案为It。 短文改错 短文改错中主要考查代词的指代错误、代词数与格的误用,人称代词与反身代词的误用及物主代词、不定代词的错用等。 感1.(2019·全国卷Ⅲ)In the cafe, customers will enjoy yourselves in the historical environment ... _____________________ 答案:yourselves→themselves 此处指代主语customers,要用themselves。 语法填空 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)When the gorillas and I frightened each other, I was just glad to find ________ (they) alive. 答案:them 跟在动词find后作宾语,故应用人称代词的宾格形式。 3.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)On my recent visit, I held a lively three-month-old twin that had been rejected by ________ (it) mother. 答案:its 修饰名词mother,应用形容词性物主代词。 4.(2019·青海西宁三校高三联考)It's a fascinating event for visitors to absorb ________ (they) in the festive atmosphere in the museum. 答案:themselves 短语absorb oneself in表示“集中注意力在……上”,指代visitors,故填themselves。 悟1.学会判断是否该填代词 高考时代词的考查有时给提示词,有时不给提示词,如果没有给提示词,且简单句中缺少主语或宾语,这时一般要填代词,主要包括人称代词、替代词和it ;如果所给提示词为代词,则人称代词需要考虑变为宾格、物主代词或反身代词以及it变为its等。 2.学会判断该填何种代词 ①根据所作成分(参考考点素能一)。②根据所指对象:这类通常是考查替代词,一般也不给提示词,如that,those,one(s),it等。③it用法:主要考查作形式主语或形式宾语或固定结构。④代词的固定搭配:如one ... another, some ... the other ... 等。 短文改错 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ)As a kid, I love to watch cartoons, but ... They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain. _____________________ 答案:us→me 根据上下文可知,谈话的对象应为“我”。 3.(2016·全国卷Ⅱ)He had a deep voice, which set himself apart from others in our small town, and he was strong and powerful. _____________________ 答案:himself→him 此处意为“他有深沉的嗓音,这使他与他人区分开”。 4.(2019·四川绵阳高三第二次诊断)Those out?of?class activities in deed helped us relieve the pressure from learning, and promoted us enthusiasm for future study. _____________________ 答案:第二个us→our 此处表述“激发了我们对未来学习的热情”。用形容词性物主代词修饰名词enthusiasm “热情”。 5.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)Five minutes later, Tony saw parents. _____________________ 答案:parents前加his 根据句意“五分钟后,托尼看见了他的父母”可知答案。 悟1.代词前后要一致 ①看到代词要考虑它与指代内容的数及所有格是否一致;②看到不定代词要考虑它的含义、特点、作用及与其他相近不定代词的区别;③切莫受汉语影响而导致代词的误加或遗漏。 2.夯实基础语法知识 一方面考生要熟悉代词所作成分及考试形式,如,修饰名词常用形容词性物主代词,单独使用常用名词性物主代词;另一方面要牢记常见的代词的区别。此外在做题时,还要注意从语意、语境上去考虑,这样才能做到万无一失。 考点素能 一 根据句子成分,确定代词形式 1.作主语,用人称代词主格。 2.作宾语或表语,用人称代词宾格。 3.作定语,修饰一个名词,用形容词性物主代词。 4.作主语、宾语或表语,且常单独使用,用名词性物主代词。 5.作宾语、表语或同位语,且反射句子主语,用反身代词。 二 根据句式结构和指代内容,判断使用it的情况 1.it可指代上文提到过的同一事物或同一内容。 2.it可指代天气、时间、距离、金钱等。 3.it可作形式主语或宾语,指代不定式、动名词或从句,而把真正的主语或宾语后置。 4.某些及物动词(通常是表示情感的动词)或短语不能直接跟从句,须先用it作宾语,再加从句,常见的有like, dislike, hate, love, appreciate, depend on, rely on, count on, see to等。 5.it常用于一些固定搭配中,如 make it(成功),it is no wonder that ... (难怪……),when it comes to ... (当谈到……),if I can help it(如果我有办法),as sb. put it(正如某人所言),it takes sb. some time to do sth.(做某事花了某人多长时间),it is the first time that ... (第一次……),it is/was ... that/who ... (强调句式)等。 三 根据句式和范围,确定不定代词 1.两者:“二者选其一”用either;“二者都不”用neither;“二者都”用both。 2.三者或三者以上:“三者或三者以上的任何一个”用any;“三者或三者以上的都不”选用none;“三者或三者以上都”选用all。 3.其他:若表示“(三者或三者以上中的)另外一个”用another;若表示“(两者中的)另一个”用the other;若表示 “其余的,另外的”且在名词前用other;若不跟名词且指代复数,用others。 4.肯定句用something,否定句和疑问句用anything。 四 根据指代意义,确定替代词 1.若指代前面出现过的不可数名词或单数可数名词则用that,其复数形式为those。 2.若指代前面出现过的那类事物中的“一个”则用one,其复数形式为ones。 3.指代同一事物或内容,则用it。 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.When he came to life, he found ________ (he) lying on the ground, bleeding in the head. 答案:himself 2.I hope my parents won't try to force me to do ________ (they) favorite job. 答案:their 3.She asked ________ (I) name and said she didn't remember me. 答案:my 4.—Are you going to get your own car after the test? —My parents have said they'll get ________ for me. 答案:one 5.—How many students are there in the classroom now? —________. I have locked it. 答案:None 6.Both teams were in hard training; ________ was willing to lose the game. 答案:neither 7.When I was on the airplane, I kept telling ________ (I) that I had to be strong when facing any troubles or problems. 答案:myself 8.However, his fame was not accompanied by money and he found ________ necessary to return to farming. 答案:it Ⅱ.单句改错 1.Nang is a special kind of cake in Xinjiang. I like them very much. _____________________ 答案:them→it 2.We are now back home. Thank you very much for showing them around your city and providing us with the wonderful meals. _____________________ 答案:them→us 3.Finally, I should be able to tell visitors about our history and culture and show them their great achievements. _____________________ 答案:their→our 4.About 36% of them are fond of surfing the Internet, which helps him know about the latest news and current affairs in the world. _____________________ 答案:him→them 5.I'd like to introduce Sarah to you. She is a good friend of me. _____________________ 答案:me→mine 6.Wherever he is, he makes himself a rule to give his mother a call. _____________________ 答案:himself→it 7.I think I can improve me a lot in this way, because where there is a will, there is a way. _____________________ 答案:me→myself 8.There are many difficulties and problems that we can't overcome with only their own efforts. _____________________ 答案:their→our Ⅲ.语法填空 Foreigners with basic Chinese language skills can generally ask for advice on restaurants or how __1__ (get) to the subway. But the fact is, many still find it __2__ (challenge) to use the language in real-life settings. Some even think that no one in China actually speaks Putonghua, at least not __3__ (nature). This is an opinion that many Chinese themselves would be quick to agree with. However, in a small county __4__ (name) Luanping, Chengde City, Hebei Province, you can meet the locals, young and old, __5__, despite their education level, talk exactly in __6__ same manner as the language recordings you became used to in class. For __7__ (generation), they have known no other mother tongue other than the standard Chinese. Elderly residents in Luanping still remember the experts from the capital __8__ (record) the way they spoke in the 1950s, which began being promoted nationally in 1955. The county __9__ turn proudly calls __10__ (it) the “hometown of Putonghua”. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇说明文,对河北省承德市滦平县被誉为普通话之乡的原因加以简单介绍。 1.to get 考查非谓语动词。那些有着基本中文技能的外国人通常能询问有关餐馆或者如何到达地铁的建议。此处是how to get to the subway在句中作介词on的宾语。 2.challenging 考查词性转换。但事实是许多人仍然发现在现实环境中使用这门语言很具有挑战性。在“find it+形容词+to do sth.”结构中,形容词作宾语补足语,故用形容词challenging。 3.naturally 考查词性转换。有些人甚至认为在中国事实上没有人说普通话,至少说得不够自然。此处应用副词修饰speaks。 4.named 考查非谓语动词。name在此作动词,意为“命名,给……取名”,是及物动词,与被修饰词a small county之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,故用过去分词作后置定语。 5.who 考查定语从句的引导词。设空处引导非限制性定语从句,先行词是locals,设空处在定语从句中作主语,故用who。 6.the 考查冠词。the same (as) ... “(与……)相同,一样”,是固定搭配。 7.generations 考查名词。根据语境可知,此处指“祖祖辈辈”,且generation是可数名词,故填generations。 8.recorded 考查动词的时态。20世纪50年代专家们对他们说话的方式加以录音。句中有明确的表示过去的时间,即in the 1950s,故使用一般过去时。 9.in 考查介词。这个县继而自豪地称自己为“普通话之乡”。in turn “转而,相应地”。 10.itself 考查代词。因为设空处作宾语与句子主语The county指同一事物,故此空应填入反身代词itself。 Ⅳ.短文改错 Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. I feel great honored to be speaking on behalf of all the camp members. First of all, I'd like to express my sincere thank to all the teachers and host families which have given us a lot of help in life and in study. During past few weeks we have had a wonderful time and achieve a lot. The host parents took care of us, which made us feeling at home. But with the help of the teachers we have made great progress in English. Meanwhile, we have got to know more about western history and culture before seeing so many places of interest. What's more, the visit to such famous universities as Harvard University and Stanford University that has broadened our horizons. What they have gained from this camp is not only knowledge, but also friendship. I hope our friendship will last forever. Thank you! 答案: Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. I feel honored to be speaking on behalf of all the camp members. First of all, I'd like to express my sincere to all the teachers and host families have given us a lot of help in life and in study. During past few weeks we have had a wonderful time and a lot. The host parents took care of us, which made us at home. with the help of the teachers we have made great progress in English. Meanwhile, we have got to know more about western history and culture seeing so many places of interest. What's more, the visit to such famous universities as Harvard University and Stanford University has broadened our horizons. What have gained from this camp is not only knowledge, but also friendship. I hope our friendship will last forever. Thank you! PAGE - 1 - 第5讲 介词 高考对介词的考查主要是介词的基本用法及含介词的固定搭配。语法填空中对介词的考查不给提示词,因此对考生正确理解句意和语法基本功有较高的要求。短文改错对介词的考查主要涉及介词的多余、缺失与错用,其中固定搭配中介词的错用为重点。因此,考生应在掌握介词基本用法的同时,还应注意积累总结,尤其是固定搭配一定要平时多记忆。 考点感悟 语法填空 语法填空中对介词的考查主要为介词的基本用法和固定搭配。 感1.(2019·北京高考)First celebrated ________ 1970, the Day now includes events in more than 190 countries and regions (地区). 答案:in 在1970年,应用介词in。在年、月和季节前,用介词in。 2.(2019·安徽高三联考)These might range, for example, from playing table tennis ________ going mountain?biking. 答案:to from ... to意为“从……到……”,为固定搭配。故填to。 3.(2019·浙江高考)The answer ________ this question is not clear. 答案:to the answer to ... “……的答案”。 悟1.学会判断是否该填介词 ①如果空格后为名词、代词或动名词,且它们在句中不作主语、表语或动词的宾语,则其前可能填介词;②如果空格处能与空格前的动词或形容词构成固定搭配,且空格后的成分又作宾语,则空格处填介词。 2.掌握介词的基本用法 参考“考点素能一” 3.熟知介词的固定搭配 一般介词与名词、动词、形容词的搭配为高考重点(参考“考点素能二” ) 短文改错 短文改错中主要考查介词的基本用法和固定搭配。 感1.(2019·沈阳东北育才高三联考)Do not refuse to learn a skill when young, as at the long run you will find them helpful. _____________________ 答案:at→in 短语in the long run “从长远来看”。 2.(2019·成都龙泉二中高三模拟)I'd like to play the dog while my grandpa was taking care of his fruit trees. _____________________ 答案:play后加with play with “同……一起玩”,是固定短语,所以play后加with。 3.(2019·安徽高三联考)There was a problem. When I asked about fish, in my terrible French, the assistant thought I wanted chickens. _____________________ 答案:about→for 句意:当我用蹩脚的法语要鱼时,店员以为我要的是鸡。根据句意可知,作者用法语点餐,想要吃鱼,ask for sth. “请求/要求……”,故将about改为for。 4.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)My uncle says that he never dreams becoming rich in a short period of time. _____________________ 答案:dreams后加of dream of doing sth. “梦想做某事”,为固定搭配。 悟短文改错中看到介词要注意以下三点 1.看与动词、名词或形容词搭配是否正确。 2.留意特殊词或固定搭配 如answer/key/solution/attitude/approach等词常与介词to连用。 3.切莫受汉语影响 如,“在……帮助下”英文表达为with the help of ..., 而不是under the help of ...。 考点素能 一 几组常见的介词用法辨析 1.at, in, on表示时间 (1)at表示某一时刻 at 8:00 (在8点), at noon (在中午), at night (在夜里), at midnight (在半夜), at dawn/daybreak (在黎明,破晓), at sunrise/sunset (在日出/日落), at dusk (在黄昏) (2)in指上午、下午及晚上或月、年等较长的时间 in the 1980's/1980s, in the Qing Dynasty, in October, in the morning/afternoon/evening (3)on用于表示具体的日期前(如:某日、某节日、星期几等) On October 1st, on a rainy day, on National Day, on the morning of July 3rd 2.by, before, after, until/till, during, within表示时间 (1)by指“到……时(为止)” (2)before “在……以前” (3)after “在……以后” (4)until/till指“直到……为止” (5)during “在……期间” (6)within “在……之内” 3.between, among表示“在……之间” between指“在……之间(两者之间)”,常和and连用;among表示“在……之间(三者或三者以上)”。 Keep the close relationship between teachers and students. 保持亲密的师生关系。 4.by, in, on, with表示“使用……工具、手段、方式等” (1)表示“乘、坐(交通工具)”或“通过……方式”用by时,交通工具前不用限定词,用in或on时,交通工具前用限定词,如by bike, by taxi, by plane, by ship, in a car, in a bus, on one's bike (2)in当“用”讲时,后常接表示语言、材料等的词 Her parents always talk to her in German. 她的父母总是用德语和她交谈。 (3)with表示使用某种具体的工具、手段等 We see with our eyes, hear with our ears, and walk with our legs. 我们用眼睛看,用耳朵听,用腿走路。 5.with的常见用法 (表示关系)和……一起;(表示状态)具有,带有;(表示方式)用……,凭借……;(表示原因)由于,因为。 Would you like to go to the theatre with us? 你愿意和我们一起去看戏吗? The small child trembled with fear. 那个小孩吓得打哆嗦。 6.for的用法 “(表示对象、用途等)为了;给,对;(表示去向)因为,由于;向,往;就……而言”。 The biggest concern for most of us is the quality of public education. 我们大多数人最关心的是大众教育的质量问题。 7.beyond的用法 (表示位置)在……另一边,在……更远处;(表示程度)超出,非……所能及。 Everybody was touched beyond words after they heard her moving story. 听了她感人的故事,大家都被感动得无以言表。 二 介词常见的搭配 1.名词与介词搭配 by accident/chance 偶然,碰巧 on board 在(船、飞机、火车)上 on average 平均 in charge 掌管,主管 in place 适当的,恰当的 in favo(u)r of 赞成,支持 in favour of 为了纪念,对……表示敬意 in spite of 尽管,虽然 in turn 依次,转而 in vain 徒劳 in memory of 为纪念…… in return 作为回报 in order 按顺序,处于良好状态 2.动词与介词搭配 bring about 引起 remind sb. of sth. 提醒某人某事 rob sb. of sth. 抢劫某人某物 call for 要求,需要 care about 关心 get rid of 免除,摆脱 run out of 用完 adapt to 适应 refer to 涉及,查阅 come across (偶然)遇见 pick up 捡起,用车接(某人),接收,偶然习得 look for 寻找 wait for 等待 3.形容词与介词搭配 be curious about 对……好奇 be proud of 因……而自豪 be popular with 受到……的欢迎 be anxious about 为……忧虑 be concerned about 对……担心、忧虑 be present at 出席 be absent from 缺席 be free from 免于 过关检测(限时:30分钟) Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.Even though our eyes are closed, they move rapidly from side ________ side. 答案:to 2.________ the contrary, we laugh and talk during a meal. 答案:On 3.One thing which really upset George was that a customer complained ________ the food and sent it back to the kitchen to be done over. 答案:about/of 4.If we can change our attitude ________ things in the world, we can certainly adjust our emotions. 答案:to/towards 5.The villagers collected money to set up a monument ________ memory of those who died in the great earthquake. 答案:in 6.My brother likes eating very much but he isn't very particular ________ the food he eats. 答案:about 7.The little pupil took his grandma ________ the arm and walked her across the street. 答案:by 8.It's obvious that the new manager is rich ________ experience. 答案:in Ⅱ.单句改错 1.In the morning of last Saturday, we went to visit a big factory in our town. _____________________ 答案:In→On 2.We must pay attention to the way our body makes use the food. _____________________ 答案:use后加of 3.She fixed all the radios besides the smallest one, because there were no parts for it. _____________________ 答案:besides→except 4.With an old man leading the way, the scientists walked across the thick forest. _____________________ 答案:across→through 5.At entering the classroom, I heard the good news. _____________________ 答案:At→On/Upon 6.Sitting in front of TV all day does harm for our eyes and wastes our time. _____________________ 答案:for→to 7.They are usually curious when they first arrive a foreign country. _____________________ 答案:arrive后加in 8.They talked about what they had done since they graduated a university. _____________________ 答案:graduated后加from 9.More and more high-rise buildings have been built in big cities in lack of space. _____________________ 答案:第二个in→for 10.The ice is too thin for us to skate. _____________________ 答案:skate后加on Ⅲ.语法填空 High school students have defeated __1__ artificial intelligence device designed to pass the National College Entrance Exam, in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province. Forty-three students from liberal arts classes at Chengdu Shishitianfu High School joined the two-hour contest __2__ (finish) a match test in the standard national entrance exam against the robot, the brainchild of four years' research by Zhun Xing Yun Xue Technology Co., Ltd. Students scored 106 points __3__ average, outperforming the computer program that had 93 points. She Yujia, a student in the contest, said she felt like __4__ (fight) the program on behalf of humans, especially after Google's AlphaGo __5__ (beat) professional Go player Lee Sedol of South Korea last year. Researchers who developed the AI test taker, __6__ is also part of a project by the Ministry of Science and Technology, said the failure was due to a poor understanding of concepts in some math problems. Lin Hui, CEO of the developing company, said more efforts __7__ (make) to fix bugs and improve performance of the program in the near future, with a focus on math __8__ (apply). Chinese students are usually separated into science and liberal arts classes at high school, a practice that allows them to stay __9__ (compete) in the college entrance exam by choosing __10__ (prefer) subjects. Math tests for liberal arts students are usually easier than those given to science students. 1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5.________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9.________ 10.________ 篇章导读:本文是一篇记叙文,主要讲述了在四川成都,人工智能机器人与43名学生一起参加高考模拟,最终机器人落败。人工智能在这方面的精准度仍有待提高,其发展空间仍很大。 1.an 考查冠词。defeated为谓语动词,artificial inteligence device是名词,此处表示“一个装置”,在文中首次提到且artificial的首字母发音为元音音素,所以用不定冠词修饰名词,故填an。 2.to finish 考查非谓语动词。用动词不定式表示目的,故填to finish。 3.on 考查介词。on average “平均”,为固定搭配,故填on。 4.fighting 考查固定搭配。feel like doing sth. “感觉像做某事”,故填fighting。 5.beat 考查动词的时态。由last year确定句子应用一般过去时,beat的过去式仍是beat,故填beat。 6.which 考查定语从句的引导词。设空处引导定语从句修饰指物的先行词AI test taker,且此处为非限制性定语从句,所以用which引导非限制性定语从句,故填which。 7.would be made 考查动词的时态和语态。由句中的said和in the near future确定该句的时态为过去将来时,efforts与make是动宾关系,故填would be made。 8.application(s) 考查词性转换。根据语境可知此空应填其名词形式,故填application(s)。 9.competitive 考查词性转换。stay为系动词,in the college entrance exam为地点状语,此空应填形容词与stay构成系表结构,故填competitive。 10.preferred 考查词性转换。分析句子结构,choosing为动词-ing形式,subjects为名词,此空应填形容词修饰名词,故填preferred。 Ⅳ.短文改错 I have an aunt work in London. It has been five years that we met each other. Last summer vacation my parent and I took a trip there. I didn't expect live in a city in England could be much expensive than in my home country in eastern Europe. We went to Cambridge on the other day. They were many kinds of delicious food, so we got ourselves something to eat. I eat Coriander crisps, which were extreme tasty. Although I was tired that day, I really had wonderful time. 答案: PAGE - 1 -

  • ID:4-6779586 新疆乌鲁木齐市2020届高三上学期第一次质量监测英语试题 PDF版无听力音频和文字材料

    高中英语/高考专区/模拟试题


    乌鲁木齐地区2020年高三年级第一次质量监测
    英语参考答案及评分标准
    第 I 卷(选择题,共100分)
    第一部分: 听力(共两节,满分30分)第一节、第二节(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分)
    1-5 CABAA 6-10 ACBCA 11-15 BBCAB 16-20 BACCB
    第二部分: 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分)
    第一节(共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分)
    21-23 ADA 24-27 CBDC 28-31 ABDA 32-35 CBCD
    第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分) 36-40 FCADB
    第三部分: 英语知识运用(共两节,满分45分)
    第一节 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分)
    41-45 DBADC 46-50 BDCAB 51-55 ADBCA 56-60 CBADC
    第 II 卷(非选择题,共50分)
    第三部分:英语知识运用
    第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)
    61. to make 62. into 63. the 64. developed 65. seventh
    66. when 67. mainly 68. have been used 69. weight 70. It
    第四部分: 写作(共两节,满分35分)
    短文改错(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分)
    As the development of science and technology, supermarket in the future will be quite different
    With supermarkets
    from what they are now.
    First of all, a wider variety of goods will be provided at much low prices. Moreover, there will
    lower
    have no human assistants in the supermarkets. All the work will be doing by robots. We can get the
    be done
    things we need just at the touch of the buttons on the screen but then robots will bring it to you. If you
    and them
    don’t want to take your things to home yourself, you can ask any robot to do that for you, that is free of
    删去to which
    charge.
    In word, future supermarkets will be more convenient.
    ∧a
    第二节:书面表达(满分25分)
    One possible version:
    ????? Knowing that you’re interested in Chinese history and eager to have access to it, I’m writing to recommend two practical and convenient ways to you.
    ????? We can have a better understanding of Chinese history in varieties of ways, among which reading history books and watching documentaries are what I strongly recommend. From my perspective, books, as traditional information carriers, are the most convenient way to learn Chinese history. As we read a history book, it seems as if historical pictures are unfolding before our eyes. Watching documentaries is a terrific and vivid way of restoring historical truth. We can have a better visual experience while acquiring historical knowledge.
    Hopefully, you can know more about Chinese history and have a pleasant learning experience.
    Yours,
    Li Hua
    ================================================
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    新疆乌鲁木齐市2020届高三上学期第一次质量监测英语答案.doc
    新疆乌鲁木齐市2020届高三上学期第一次质量监测英语试题(PDF版).pdf